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History of Sacramento III AOE-1 - History

History of Sacramento III AOE-1 - History


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Sacramento III

(AOE-1: dp. 53,600 (f.), 1. 792'9"; b. 107', dr. 39'5";
s. 25 k.; cpl. 509; a. 8 3"; cl. Sacramento)

The third Sacramento (AOE-1), the first of the Navy's fast combat support ships, was laid down on 30 June 1961 at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Wash.; launched on 14 September 1963; sponsored by Mrs. Edmund G. Brown, and commissioned on 14 March 1964, Capt. Mark M. Gantar in command.

Sacramento's turbines are two of the four originally built for Kentucky (BB-66), which was never completed. Her cargo capacity is more than 175,000 barrels or nearly eight million gallons of Navy Standard fuel oil, JP-5 aviation fuel, and aviation gasoline. Pumping capacity, to port and starboard simultaneously, exceeds 1.5 million gallons per hour. She can also carry 1,600 tons of ammunition, including missiles, 250 tons of refrigerated provisions, an equal amount of dry provisions and stores, and a sizeable load of miscellaneous freight and mail. Helicopter facilities include a loading area aft with hangar space for three UH-46 helicopters.

Seattle, Wash., was designated her home port. On 7 April 1964, Sacramento steamed out of the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard to begin her maiden voyage, three days of builder's and familiarization trials. On Friday, 12 June, Sacramento and Mars (AFS-1) rendezvoused about 35 miles off Point Loma, Calif., to test their new systems of replenishing.

Underway training with the Fleet Training Group, San Diego, commenced on 15 June. Following a call at San Francisco, the ship returned to Bremerton for
replenishment-at-sea trials, followed by post-shakedown availability from 27 August through 9 October. The ship departed Long Beach on 28 November for her first WestPac deployment.

On 9 December, two days out of Pearl Harbor Sacramento refueled Ticonderoga (CVA-14), Kearsarge (CVA-33), and five destroyers. She then continued on to Sasebo, Japan. Through this 175-day deployment, Sacramento provided in-port services, and, for four months, replenished ships in the South China Sea. She serviced 294 ships, transferred 35 million gallons of fuel, 1,191 short tons of provisions, and 670 tons of ammunition. During this period, she steamed over 39, 000 miles and called at Sasebo, Yokosuka, Hong Kong, and Pearl Harbor.

At the end of this "maiden deployment," Sacramento returned to Long Beach and then continued on to Bremerton for yard availability, which ended on 16 August. Refresher training and the usual preparations for sea preceded her second departure for WestPac on 14 October.

Arriving at Subic Bay on the 28th, she became an integral part of Task Force 73, the 7th Fleet replenishment and mobile logistics support force. She then steamed to Yankee Station off Vietnam's coast to begin duties on the replenishment line.

A typical cycle in Vietnamese waters consisted of two and one-half weeks on Yankee Station, a quick run back to Subic Bay for five or six days of in-port loading, then a return to station. This nine-month deployment ended with Sacramento's arrival at Seattle on 17 July 1966.

Sacramento stood out from Long Beach on 25 November to commence a third WestPac deployment and resumed her Yankee Station cycle for months of vital service before returning home. A fourth WestPac deployment commenced on 6 January 1968. After replenishing the 351st ship of that deployment on 15 June, she steamed for the west coast. From San Francisco she proceeded to Bremerton for her first regular yard overhaul since commissioning.

From December 1968 to February 1969, Sacramento underwent the normal inspections, trials, and preparations for deployment. She again steamed west on 11 February, arrived at Subic Bay on the 28th, and five days later headed for Yankee Station. This deployment saw Sacramento complete 471 replenishments while steaming over 51,000 miles. Upon returning home at the end of September 1969, the ship spent three months in the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and then commenced preparations for her next WestPac deployment.

Sacramento departed on her sixth WestPac deployment on 23 February 1970, after loading ammunition at Bangor and fuel at Manchester. She arrived in Subic Bay, P.I., on 15 March and, six days later headed for Yankee Station. She continued making trips between Subic Bay and Yankee Station through August, taking time out to visit Yokosuka in June, and Hong Kong in July. On 5 September, she departed Subic Bay for San Diego, arriving on the 18th. Five days later, she moved to Puget Sound for ammunition offload, a standdown period, and restricted availability. The end of 1970 saw her still at Puget Sound.

On 8 January 1971, she sailed south to Long Beach Seal Beach, San Diego, and San Francisco. In February, she returned to Washington to load stores for her seventh WestPac deployment. She departed Bangor on 1 March and entered Subic Bay on the 20th. Four days later, Sacramento exited Subic Bay on her first line swing of this tour. She sailed back and forth between Subic Bay and Yankee Station until 5 August, when she got underway for Sasebo, Japan, on the first leg of her voyage back to the United States. After stops at Long Beach, Seal Beach, San Diego, and San Francisco, Sacramento entered her new home port, Bremerton, Wash., on 2 September. She finished out 1971 on the west coast, commencing overhaul at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard on 1 December.

Sacramento remained in Bremerton through early June 1972, when she began post-overhaul operations off the west coast. This employment continued until 11 August, at which time she departed from Bangor, en route to Subic Bay. She replenished units of the 7th Fleet, off the coast of Vietnam, for the next six and one-half months, finally departing from Subic Bay on 23 March 1973. After visiting Yokosuka, Japan, she continued on to the United States, arriving at Bremerton, Wash., on 16 April. For the remainder of the year, Sacramento was active along the west coast.

The beginning of 1974 brought with it preparations for another overseas deployment. Sacramento departed Seal Beach, Calif., in February, and headed for the Far East once again. As of June 1974, she was cruising the waters of the western Pacific in support of the 7th Fleet.

Sacramento earned 15 battle stars for service in the Vietnam War.


USS Sacramento (AOE-1)

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A milestone in the history of the U. S.


SACRAMENTO AOE 1

This section lists the names and designations that the ship had during its lifetime. The list is in chronological order.

    Sacramento Class Fast Combat Support Ship
    Keel Laid 30 June 1961 - Launched 14 September 1963

Naval Covers

This section lists active links to the pages displaying covers associated with the ship. There should be a separate set of pages for each incarnation of the ship (ie, for each entry in the "Ship Name and Designation History" section). Covers should be presented in chronological order (or as best as can be determined).

Since a ship may have many covers, they may be split among many pages so it doesn't take forever for the pages to load. Each page link should be accompanied by a date range for covers on that page.

Postmarks

This section lists examples of the postmarks used by the ship. There should be a separate set of postmarks for each incarnation of the ship (ie, for each entry in the "Ship Name and Designation History" section). Within each set, the postmarks should be listed in order of their classification type. If more than one postmark has the same classification, then they should be further sorted by date of earliest known usage.

A postmark should not be included unless accompanied by a close-up image and/or an image of a cover showing that postmark. Date ranges MUST be based ONLY ON COVERS IN THE MUSEUM and are expected to change as more covers are added.
 
>>> If you have a better example for any of the postmarks, please feel free to replace the existing example.


AOE-1 SacramentoFast Combat Support Ship

The first two ships of the class, USS SACRAMENTO (AOE 1), USS CAMDEN (AOE 2), are assigned to the US Pacific Fleet. USS SEATTLE (AOE 3) and USS DETROIT are assigned to the US Atlantic Fleet.

The concept of creating a one station supply ship to perform the functions of three, to have the speed and be equipped with the weapons, sensors and communications equipment necessary to operate as an integral part of the battle group originated under the then Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Arleigh Burke who embraced the concept as an answer to the logistics problems he had encountered during World War II. Previously battle group underway replenishments had to scheduled well in advance due to communications problems and these unreps were subject to change especially due to weather and tactical situation changes The Underway Replenishment Groups which provided the critical supplies were slow, unwieldy and never seemed to be there when needed. To counter these problems the multi-product station ship concept originated and the Fast Combat Support ship (AOE) was designed and funded. When built Sacramento carried more fuel than the largest oiler and more ammunition than the largest ammunition ship in the US Navy as well as a significant portion of the supplies that a stores ships could carry.

The USS SACRAMENTO class ships combine the functions of three logistic support ships in one hull - fleet oiler (AO), ammunition ship (AE), and refrigerated stores ship (AF). As an oiler (AO) it carries (95% fully loaded) 5.2 million gallons of marine distillate fuel and 2.7 million gallons of aviation jet fuel. About 60-million gallons are pumped each year from this floating filling station to other ships. As an ammunition ship (AE), SACRAMENTO can replenish the entire ordnance requirements of an aircraft carrier in three to four hours. It also carries a complete assortment of missiles and ammunitions for cruisers and destroyers with a capacity of approximately six-thousand tons when fully loaded. In the capacity of a refrigeration ship (AF), SACRAMENTO carries over one-thousand tons of frozen, chilled, and dry food items. Mail is as important as food to sailors. During deployment the SACRAMENTO delivers approximately 100-thousand pounds of mail to forces at sea. Sacramento is capable of carrying over 300 tons of refrigerated provisions, 500 tons of dry provisions and 150 tons of other supplies. While not normally loaded, Sacramento carries 220 different items (dry and refrigerated) and 120 other items when deployed.

These multi-commodity, fast combat support ships have brought an increased capability to the Fleet for the underway replenishment of provisions, combat stores, ordnance and petroleum products. The advanced design of their replenishment facilities and sophisticated cargo-handling equipment effectively accomplishes the rapid transfer of combat consumables at sea by providing "one-stop shopping" for customer ships. In addition, because of their size, these ships also have facilities for limited ship repair and maintenance service, as well as, for other special assignments.

This capability for providing on-station combat logistic support contributes to the tactical effectiveness of Carrier Battle Groups or Amphibious Ready Groups operating in any theater of operation. As an example, one AOE can provide integral logistic support for one conventionally-fueled, large-decked aircraft carrier with a full air wing embarked, and three gas turbine powered guided missile escort cruisers or destroyers steaming 12,000 miles, flying 4,000 hours, and reloading a full magazine of ammunition for each.

SACRAMENTO is designed to operate with strike forces necessitating fast handling of cargo. A system of elevators and package conveyors permits ready access to ammunition and cargo holds. SACRAMENTO operates a fleet of fork lift trucks, allowing breakout and positioning of cargo and ammunition with greater efficiency.

Sophisticated automatic cargo equipment like the Standard Tensioned Replenishment Alongside Method (STREAM), provide rapid transfer of materials from SACRAMENTO to its customers. Fuel is delivered through four double and two single hose (STREAM) fuel lines which are fed by large turbine driven cargo fuel pumps capable of supplying fuel at 40 to 120 psi at a maximum flow rate of three-thousand gallons per minute per pump used. This process is termed FAS for Fueling At Sea.

Cargo, ammunition and supplies are moved vertically over seven decks (weather deck, cargo handling and staging deck and five levels of cargo holds) by seven different elevators. Elevators one through six service the four ammunition holds and number seven elevator and a package conveyor service the provisions hold (hold five). The supplies are moved horizontally by a fleet of 33 fork trucks of various types and sizes which allow breakout, positioning and stowage of cargo and ammunition with efficiency.

Cargo is delivered by four heavy and three standard lift STREAM cargo stations or by a detachment of two CH-46 helicopters which deploy with the Sacramento. The process of resupplying a ship alongside by means of a fuel or cargo station is termed CONREP for connected replenishment.

Vertical replenishment (VERTREP), adds another dimension to SACRAMENTO's ability to transfer freight, mail, personnel, provisions and ammunition. Two Boeing CH-46 jet turbine helicopters (Sacramento has hangar space for three), with replenishment rates of up to 6-thousand pounds per minute, allow delivery to customer ship flight decks. The VERTREP capability allows Sacramento to resupply ships in a dispersed formation, reduces alongside replenishment time, and allows transfer of cargo over greater distances. Additionally, SACRAMENTO can accept other helicopters, for VERTREP support.

To support the crew, the ship must be self sufficient in every respect. Personnel onboard have enough expertise in a variety of technical skills to maintain and operate all shipboard equipment. The ship is in essence a floating city and provides services to support and accommodate the crew.

The nearly 600 officers and crew are divided into seven departments with each performing a special type of work, coordinated to perform the mission of the ship. Those departments are: Deck, Engineering, Operations, Supply, Medical. Air and Administration. These trained professionals maintain, repair, and operate all shipboard systems. With medical and dental facilities, lounge, gymnasium and library, Sacramento provides for its crew who perform their duties day and night providing fuel, food, supplies, ammunition and mail to the striking forces of the fleet.

Sacramento is something of a bench-mark in west coast shipbuilding. It and two of its sister ships, Seattle and Detroit, are the largest ships ever built on the West Coast. Only the lowa class battleships and aircraft carriers have greater displacements than Sacramento. Sacramento's main engines came from the never completed battleship Kentucky and deliver in excess of 100-thousand shaft horsepower to the two 23-foot screws, the largest of any ship in the U.S. Navy.

It was originally armed with four, three-inch, 50 caliber guns. The two forward guns which were mounted forward of the bridge on the 01 level were replaced by the NATO Seapsparrow Missile System during the ships second regular overhaul in 1976 and the after gun mounts which were located aft of the stacks on the 04 level were replaced by two Vulcan/Phlanx mounts during the next overhaul in 1981. Sacramento's cargo handling methods and equipment have changed somewhat since 1964 as well. A new metal dunnage system was installed during its 1981 overhaul as were satellite communications and navigation systems and the Super Rapid Blooming Off-Board Chaff (SRBOC) system.

Sacramento was originally equipped with the first Fast Automated Shuttle Transfer (FAST) system to handle ammunition and stores. FAST relied on the use of cranes to move missiles and cargo containers on weather decks and hoists to move cargo from the 01 level to the main deck. In 1977 Sacramento's elevators were modified to lift cargo directly to the 01 level and the FAST cranes, transfer rails, and hoists were removed. the new system allowed cargo to be moved from hold to elevator to transfer station using standard electric fork truck and is far less prone to equipment malfunctions. In addition the modern Standard Tensioned Replenishment Alongside Method (STREAM) unrep system was installed.

The USS Detriot (AOE-4), a fast combat support ship of the Sacramento (AOE-1) class which is homeported near Philadelphia in Earle NJ, underwent a phased maintenance availability from May through October 1993. The repairs and alterations required 48,000 mandays and over $15 million. The work package included hull, mechanical and electrical work, but was much less intensive in combat systems and electronics than is the work on a combatant ship.


Fast combat support ship

The fast combat support ship (US Navy hull classification symbol: AOE) is the United States Navy's largest combat logistics ship, designed as an oiler, ammunition and supply ship. All fast combat support ships currently in service are operated by Military Sealift Command. They can carry more than 177,000 barrels of oil, 2,150 tons of ammunition, 500 tons of dry stores and 250 tons of refrigerated stores. It receives petroleum products, ammunition and stores from various shuttle ships and redistributes these items when needed to ships in the carrier battle group. This greatly reduces the number of service ships needed to travel with carrier battle groups.

The four ships of the Sacramento class were 53,000 tons at full load, 796 feet overall length, and carried two Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters. The Sacramento class was retired in 2005.

The Supply class ships displace 48,800 tons full load and carried two Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters or two Sikorsky MH-60S Knighthawk helicopters.

Air defense includes the Sea Sparrow radar and infrared surface-to-air missile in eight-cell launchers to provide point defence with 15km to 25km range. There are also two Phalanx mk15 20mm gatling gun close-in weapon systems (CIWS) and two 25mm Raytheon mk88 guns.

China has developed the Type 901 fast combat support ship which serves a similar mission in their navy.


The idea of combining the capabilities of a fleet oiler (AO), ammunition ship (AE), and refrigerated stores ship (AF) had been conceived during the Second World War by Admiral Arleigh Burke, later Chief of Naval Operations, who sought to create a single ship that would perform the functions of three vessels while simultaneously integrating into a carrier battle group. This was deemed necessary because World War II replenishments had to be scheduled well in advance due to communications problems and were subject to change due to weather or combat related reasons. On top of that the Underway Replenishment Groups of that time were slow and unwieldy. After experimenting with this "replenishment oiler" concept with the German war prize Dithmarschen (placed in service as USS Conecuh (AOR-110) ), the US Navy's solution to these problems was to create a multi-product station ship, which resulted in the construction of the Sacramento class. The Sacramentos had been designed to carry more fuel and ammunition than the largest ammunition ships then in service with the US Navy. The AOEs were also designed to be much faster than previous auxiliaries at 26 knots, giving them the ability to operate in company with a carrier battle group rather than in a separate, slower replenishment group. The first two ships each received one-half of the powerplants removed from the unfinished Iowa-class battleship Kentucky, while the remaining two received new construction machinery. All four had General Electric turbines.

To fulfill the same role in the less demanding Anti-Submarine Support Aircraft Carrier (CVS) groups, the navy built the similar, but smaller and slower, Wichita-class AORs.

Construction of the unnamed AOE-5 was cancelled in 1968. [1] There are no Sacramento-class ships in service with the Navy, the last one being retired in 2005.


History of Sacramento III AOE-1 - History

The four ships of the Sacramento class of fast support ships were the largest of their kind ever built. These vessels carried a variety of goods, supplanting the need for oilers (AO'), ammunition ships (AE), and stores and cargo ships (AF and AK). The Sacramento class was designed with operations with a carrier battle group in mind, with four refuelling stations to port and two to starboard, combined witn three dry-goods transfer stations to port and four to starboard. This class was an early adopter of the FAST (Fast Automated Shuttle Transfer) cargo transfer system, replacing older highline or Burton rig transfer methods. In addtion to UNderway REPlenishment (UNREP), the AOE's had a three-bay helicopter hanger, and usually carried 2 CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters for VERticla REPlenishment (VERTREP) operations.

These ships were exceptionally fast for their size, using the machinery from the scrapped Iowa class battleships Kentucky and Illinois Kentucky's machinery went to Sacramento and Camden, while Illinois was installed in Seattle and Detroit.

All four members of the class saw multiple refits during their careers, upgrading defensive weapons, sensors has technologies advanced. These ships were scrapped after having served an average of 37 years, having been replaced by the USS Supply Class AOE.

This kit's two-part hull is molded in Trumpeter's standard grey upper and red styrene lower hull. As is also standard, there is a red waterline plate which fits snugly into the upper hull for waterline modelers. There is also a molded grey single piece deck for Sacramento.

The deck is relatively plain, with typical forecastle details molded on anchor chains, hawsepipes, and bitts. The after portion of the deck is the helicopter flight deck. This flight deck has molded on markings to accent decaling as well as molded-in tie downs. However, these markings are not period, and there are too many tie down- and in the wrong pattern.

The details on the hull are decent, if incorrect. The stern has openings for AN/SLQ-25 towed torpedo decoy (NIXIE), but this countermeasure wasn't installed until 1996. There are openings in the hull to reflect the open deck beneath the flight deck, but no deck- it is hollow, and open to the empty hull.

The fit of the hull halves in this review kit have some serious problems. While the upper hull at the waterline has a beam of 1.84", at the deck level it leans in with an unintentional tumblehome to 1.765". The waterline plate is also 1.84" in beam, but the lower hull measures about 1.808". The halves match up very close lengthwise, so simple shrinkage does not appear to be the total problem.

  • Length
    • 792'oa = 13.57"
    • 796'oa = 13.64"
    • 770'wl = 13.2"
    • Actual = 13.27"
    • 107' =1.83"
    • 108' = 1.85"
    • Actual = 1.84"
    • 38' = .65"
    • Actual = .72"

    There have also been questions about Trumpeter's placement of the waterline, and the actual vs. kit draft appears to support these concerns.

    This first sprue has a variety of parts. The halves for the stack, the prop shafts, a mast, anchors and a fork-lift are here but the main attraction are the five replenishment stations. There are two combination refuelling/dry goods transfer stations, one double-sided dry goods, and one double refuelling station. These stations are fairly plain, with lightly molded ladders visible- as well as a few sink marks. These transfer stations are marred by the lack of any 7-inch fueling hose to coil and dangle from the six refuelling stations.

    Sprue D is the 01 sprue. The 2 parts that dominate this sprue are the bulkheads that make up the 01 level and parts of the forward superstructure and bridge, as well as part of the after deckhouse and helicopter hangar. These bulkheads have plenty of surface details fire hoses (curiously plain), hose reels, watertight doors, etc. The cargo loading doors are openings in the parts, the hatches themselves being on Sprue H. This sprue also has the other single double-sided dry goods transfer station.

    The two long pieces for the 01 level may prove challenging to align properly. Exercise caution there is little positive placement and few reinforcements.

    The single piece hangar doors part is also on D, and is very nicely detailed. This part has 3 large doors, but period photos show a track in the center of each door, giving the appearance of 6 doors it was later in Sacramento's life she regularly displayed 3 large doors.

    Also included in this kit are two CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters. The CH-46 was heavily utilized in a vertical replenishment role to augment the FAST system, to service ships not equipped for underway replenishment, or for other cargo roles as needed.

    A 12 page instruction book is included, using Trumpeter's standard construction order and methods. Read over the instructions, and carefully plan your build Trumpeter would have you build the long 01 level, complete with hangar, bridge and replenishement stations separate from the hull, and then move the assembly to the hull. This method may not be to everyone's building tastes.

    While this review sample has some serious issues with hull alignment, others have reported little or no problems with the fit of hull halves in their kits. Trumpeter's neglect to include refueling hoses is an issue that could have been rectified with little effort. The option to open the three-bay helicopter hangar, with an interior, would have been welcome as well. The other items for concern are a mix of details from different eras in Sacramento's life. These troubles are primarily caused by the apparently inconsistent research as always, check your references.

    A 1/700 USS Sacramento has been available is resin from JAG for a number of years, but Trumpeter's offering is the first time this ship has been available in plastic. An AOE is an interesting subject choice for Trumpeter a possible sign of future USN Cold War subjects? Trumpeter has already announced a USS Detroit AOE-4 (#TSM-5786), slated for the summer of 2011. The box art for Detroit shows the Sea Sparrow launchers and Mk91 Fire Control, implying a variant more suited to the kit as designed. This is likely to be the more accurate choice if you're not picky about the era or particular vessel.


    Historical Notes:

    The keel was laid for the fleets' first, fasted and finest AOE at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington on June 30, 1961. The traditional bottle of champagne was broke against the bow of AOE 1 on September 14, 1963. by the ships sponsor, Mrs. Edmund Brown, wife of the California Governor, as she christened the ship USS SACRAMENTO.

    SACRAMENTO was placed in commission on March 15, 1964. Under Secretary of the Navy Paul B. Fay Jr., the keynote speaker addressed the crowd of 1,300 in attendance, stating that, "The greatest pleasure I have in being here today is. participating in the commissioning of a vessel which will provide the Navy with a unique capability hitherto never contained in one ship." He added the ship would be able to "run in speed with a destroyer escort, thereby giving our fast attack carrier task forces a flexibility of action hitherto unknown."

    SACRAMENTO is considered a benchmark in West Coast shipbuilding. The ship and two of her sister ships, SEATTLE and DETROIT, are the largest ships ever built on the West Coast. Only the Iowa class battleships and aircraft carriers have greater displacements than SACRAMENTO. The ship's main engines came from the never completed battleship KENTUCKY and deliver in excess of 100-thousand shaft horsepower to the two 23-foot screws, the largest of any ship in the Navy.

    The ship was originally armed with four, 3-inch .50 caliber guns. The two forward guns, which were mounted forward of the bridge on the 01 level, were replaced by a NATO Sea Sparrow Missile System during a ship's overhaul in 1976. The after mounts, which were located aft of the stack on the 04 level, were replaced by two Vulcan/Phalanx Close In Weapon System mounts in 1981. That overhaul also saw improvements in satellite communications and navigation systems as well.

    Cargo handling methods and equipment have also improved somewhat since 1964. SACRAMENTO originally was equipped with the first Fast Automated Shuttle Transfer (FAST) system to handle ammunition and stores. FAST relied on the use of cargo from the 01 level to the main deck. In 1977, the ship's elevators were modified to lift cargo directly to the 01 level. The FAST system was removed as the new system allowed cargo to be moved from the hold to elevator to transfer station using standard electric fork trucks, which are far less prone to equipment malfunctions. In addition, the modern Standard Tensioned Replenishment Alongside Method (STREAM) unrep system was installed.


    Early Radio Career

    Limbaugh landed his first radio job when he was in high school using the pseudonym "Rusty Sharpe," he worked as a DJ for the local station KGMO (co-owned by his father). Following high school, Limbaugh briefly attended Southeast Missouri State University he left the school in 1971, after one year of enrollment, to pursue a career in radio. 

    However, Limbaugh had trouble keeping a position. He was fired from stations in Missouri and Pennsylvania for being too controversial as news commentator. "My whole family thought I was destined for failure," he later recalled.

    Following a stint as a ticket salesman for Major League Baseball&aposs Kansas City Royals, in the mid-1980s, Limbaugh landed a job as an on-air host at KFBK in Sacramento, California, with the help of a radio executive friend. There, Limbaugh took over Morton Downey Jr.&aposs slot, and met with success when his ratings surpassed his predecessor&aposs. Less than a year later, Limbaugh became known as Sacramento&aposs top radio host.

    In 1987, the Federal Communications Commission repealed a long-standing rule known as the Fairness Doctrine, which required both television and radio stations to air for an equal amount of time each side to a political argument. The repeal of the Fairness Doctrine ultimately paved the way for Limbaugh&aposs now-distinct, politically conservative radio style to take shape. Not long after, the on-air host left KFBK for a position at the ABC Radio Network, bringing his newfound fame with him, as well as a reputation for having strong, right wing ideologies.


    Historical Notes:

    The keel was laid for the fleets' first, fasted and finest AOE at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington on June 30, 1961. The traditional bottle of champagne was broke against the bow of AOE 1 on September 14, 1963. by the ships sponsor, Mrs. Edmund Brown, wife of the California Governor, as she christened the ship USS SACRAMENTO.

    SACRAMENTO was placed in commission on March 15, 1964. Under Secretary of the Navy Paul B. Fay Jr., the keynote speaker addressed the crowd of 1,300 in attendance, stating that, "The greatest pleasure I have in being here today is. participating in the commissioning of a vessel which will provide the Navy with a unique capability hitherto never contained in one ship." He added the ship would be able to "run in speed with a destroyer escort, thereby giving our fast attack carrier task forces a flexibility of action hitherto unknown."

    SACRAMENTO is considered a benchmark in West Coast shipbuilding. The ship and two of her sister ships, SEATTLE and DETROIT, are the largest ships ever built on the West Coast. Only the Iowa class battleships and aircraft carriers have greater displacements than SACRAMENTO. The ship's main engines came from the never completed battleship KENTUCKY and deliver in excess of 100-thousand shaft horsepower to the two 23-foot screws, the largest of any ship in the Navy.

    The ship was originally armed with four, 3-inch .50 caliber guns. The two forward guns, which were mounted forward of the bridge on the 01 level, were replaced by a NATO Sea Sparrow Missile System during a ship's overhaul in 1976. The after mounts, which were located aft of the stack on the 04 level, were replaced by two Vulcan/Phalanx Close In Weapon System mounts in 1981. That overhaul also saw improvements in satellite communications and navigation systems as well.

    Cargo handling methods and equipment have also improved somewhat since 1964. SACRAMENTO originally was equipped with the first Fast Automated Shuttle Transfer (FAST) system to handle ammunition and stores. FAST relied on the use of cargo from the 01 level to the main deck. In 1977, the ship's elevators were modified to lift cargo directly to the 01 level. The FAST system was removed as the new system allowed cargo to be moved from the hold to elevator to transfer station using standard electric fork trucks, which are far less prone to equipment malfunctions. In addition, the modern Standard Tensioned Replenishment Alongside Method (STREAM) unrep system was installed.


    Watch the video: The History of Age of Empires (May 2022).


Comments:

  1. Stevan

    too cute)))

  2. Tolmaran

    It is not joke!

  3. Benigied Vran

    rarely .. .. We can say this exception: i)

  4. Hann

    It is conditionality, neither is it bigger, nor less



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