Baldwin was born in New Haven, Connecticut, on January 14, 1780. He graduated from Yale in 1797. He moved to Philadelphia where he read law and was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar. In 1816, Baldwin was elected to the House of Representatives. He was forced to resign from the House in 1822 due to ill health. He recovered and returned to his law practice. In 1830 he was appointed to Supreme Court by the President Jackson, where he served for fourteen years until his death on April 21, 1844
Hyde was born in Catskill, New York on February 15, 1834, the son of Henry Hazen Hyde (1805–1873), a successful merchant, and Lucy Baldwin (née Beach) Hyde (1807–1846). He attended the public schools of Catskill, and when he was 16 his teacher decided to move to New York City to join the growing life insurance industry. The teacher persuaded both Hydes to join him, and all three became agents for the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York.
The younger Hyde worked for several months in Honesdale, Pennsylvania before deciding to return to New York City, where he became a clerk for Merritt, Ely & Company, a dry goods import and wholesale company. He remained there for two years, and then returned to Mutual Life, where his father had recently been appointed to the executive ranks and a place on the board of directors. Hyde rose through the home office staff to become the company's cashier.
Equitable Life Edit
In March 1859, Hyde left Mutual Life and established his own company, Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States. William C. Alexander initially served as president, and Hyde was vice president and general manager. Hyde succeeded to the presidency after Alexander's death in 1874, and remained in the position until his death.
He led the company to construct the Equitable Life Assurance Building for its headquarters, completed on May 1, 1870, and pushed to have the first passenger elevators installed in what was then the tallest office building in the United States. 
In 1864, he was married to Annie Fitch (1845–1922), a daughter of Capt. Martin Halenbeck Truesdell and Jane Maria (née Reed) Fitch.  Together, they were the parents of:
- Anna Baldwin Hyde (1865–1865), who died in infancy. (1866–1938), who married Sidney Dillon Ripley in 1886. After his death in 1905, she married banker Charles R. Scott in 1912. 
- Henry Baldwin Hyde (1872–1880), who died in childhood. (1876—1959),  who married Marthe Leishman (1882–1944), a daughter of John George Alexander Leishman and the widow of Count Louis de Gontaut-Biron. 
He was a founding member of the Jekyll Island Club aka The Millionaires Club.
Hyde died at his home in New York City on May 2, 1899.  He was buried at Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx.  His widow died in 1922.  
Hyde sought to guarantee that his son James Hazen Hyde would continue the family’s control of the company after his death. The younger Hyde was appointed a vice president of the company at 22, and was 23 when he inherited a majority interest in the company. By the terms of his father's will, he was scheduled to assume the company presidency in 1906, but a concerted effort against him by the current president and several members of the board of directors led James H. Hyde to leave the company and move to France.
Through his son, he was a grandfather of Henry Baldwin Hyde (1915–1997), who married Marie de La Grange, a daughter of Baron Amaury De La Grange  and Emily Eleanor, Baroness De La Grange (daughter of Henry T. Sloane),  in 1941.  Marie's brother was Henry-Louis de La Grange, a musicologist and biographer of Gustav Mahler. 
Baldwin History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms
Baldwin is one of the names carried to England in the great wave of migration from Normandy following the Norman Conquest in 1066. It is based on the Germanic elements bald, which means bold, and wine, which means friend or protector.
Baldwin (d. 1098) was abbot and physician, "a monk of St. Denys, and was made prior of the monastery of Liberau, a cell of St. Denys, in Alsace. When Edward the Confessor refounded the monastery of Deerhurst and gave it to St. Denys, Baldwin was appointed prior of this new possession of his house. " 
"Baldwin of Moeles (d. 1100?) was the second son of Gilbert, count of Eu, who was a grandson of Richard the Fearless, and one of the guardians of the youth of William the Conqueror. " 
Baldwin (d. 1191), Archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Exeter of poor parents. "He received an excellent education, both in secular and religious learning, and bore a high character. "  "Archbishop Baldwin, who died at Tyre in 1191, while engaged on a crusade." 
Baldwin of Clare ( fl. 1141) was the "youngest son of Gilbert Fitz-Richard, of the elder branch of the line of Gilbert, count of Eu, grandson of Richard the Fearless. Baldwin of Redvers (d. 1155) was the eldest son of Richard, earl of Devon, the son of Baldwin of Moeles. " 
Baldwin, the Count of Flanders (1172-1205), led the Fourth Crusade and became the first Latin Emperor of Constantinople (1204). Baldwin of Exeter or Baldwin of Forde (c.1125-1190) was Bishop of Worcester in 1180 and Archbishop of Canterbury between 1185 and 1190.
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Early Origins of the Baldwin family
The surname Baldwin was first found in Shropshire, where this ancient family "was early seated at Diddlebury, (or Delbury,) in Coverdale, which appears to have come from the heiress of Wigley. Robert Baldwin of Diddlebury died anno 1398, and was ancestor of the family." 
"The Sieur de Baudewin, whose name occurs of the Roll [of Battle Abbey] became after the battle of Hastings Catellan of Montgomery. There scarcely exists a doubt that this Norman Chief was patriarch of the ancient family of Bawdewin, or Baldwyn. " 
"The parish [of Witsbury in Wiltshire] formed part of the possessions of Breamore Priory, founded by Baldwin de Redveriis in the reign of Henry I. It is situated on the highest land between Hants and Wilts, commanding an extensive view of the New Forest, and southward to the sea over a wide tract of fertile country." 
The Hundredorum Rolls of 1273 list: Stephen filius Baldewyn in Cambridgeshire Thomas Baldwyn in Oxfordshire Robert Baldewyne in Cambridgeshire.  Later, the Yorkshire Poll Tax Rolls of 1379 list Johannes Bawdwyn.
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Early History of the Baldwin family
This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Baldwin research. Another 87 words (6 lines of text) covering the years 1905, 1545, 1563, 1632, 1547, 1532, 1593, 1640, 1644, 1620, 1696, 1691, 1659, 1618, 1683, 1659, 1585, 1500, 1295, 1307 and 1659 are included under the topic Early Baldwin History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.
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Baldwin Spelling Variations
Norman surnames are characterized by a multitude of spelling variations. The frequent changes in surnames are largely due to the fact that the Old and Middle English languages lacked definite spelling rules. The introduction of Norman French to England, as well as the official court languages of Latin and French, also had pronounced influences on the spelling of surnames. Since medieval scribes and church officials recorded names as they sounded, rather than adhering to any specific spelling rules, it was common to find the same individual referred to with different spellings. The name has been spelled Baldwin, Baldwine, Baldwyn, Baldwyne, Baldwynn and others.
Early Notables of the Baldwin family (pre 1700)
Outstanding amongst the family at this time was John Baldwin (d. 1545), Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, a member of the Inner Temple. William Baldwin or Bawden (1563-1632), was a Jesuit and native of Cornwall. Another William Baldwin ( fl. 1547), was "a west-countryman, spent several years at Oxford in the study of logic and philosophy. He is supposed to be the William Baldwin who supplicated the congregation of regents for a master's.
Another 72 words (5 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Baldwin Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.
Migration of the Baldwin family to Ireland
Some of the Baldwin family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 185 words (13 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.
Baldwin migration +
Some of the first settlers of this family name were:
Baldwin Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
- George Baldwin who settled in Boston Massachusetts in 1620
- Nicholas Baldwin, who landed in Virginia in 1622 
- Hugh Baldwin, who landed in Virginia in 1623 
- Jo Baldwin, who landed in Virginia in 1635 
- William Baldwin, who landed in Virginia in 1635 
- . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Baldwin Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
- Inc Baldwin, who arrived in Virginia in 1701 
- Edward Baldwin, who landed in Maryland in 1753 
- Samuel Baldwin, who landed in America in 1774 
Baldwin Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
- Cath Baldwin, who arrived in New York, NY in 1812 
- Thomas Baldwin, who landed in New York in 1822 
- Daniel Baldwin, who landed in Washington County, Pennsylvania in 1838 
- John P Baldwin, aged 31, who arrived in Key West, Fla in 1838 
- Benjamin Baldwin, who landed in Mobile County, Ala in 1840 
- . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Baldwin migration to Canada +
Some of the first settlers of this family name were:
Baldwin Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
- Mary and Richard Baldwin were planters in 1724 in Placienta, Newfoundland 
- Rebecca Baldwin, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1749
- Luke Baldwin, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1750
- Mary and William Baldwin, who settled in Harbour Grace, Newfoundland in 1765 
- Mr. John Baldwin U.E. born in Philadelphia, USA who settled in St. George, Charlotte County, New Brunswick c. 1783 member of the Penobscot Association 
- . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Baldwin Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
- Mary Baldwin, aged 21, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the brig "Thomas Hanford" from Cork, Ireland
- Mrs. Mary Baldwin, aged 25 who immigrated to Canada, arriving at the Grosse Isle Quarantine Station in Quebec aboard the ship "Wm S. Hamilton" departing from the port of New Ross, Ireland but died on Grosse Isle in July 1847 
- Mr. William Baldwin, aged 2 months who immigrated to Canada, arriving at the Grosse Isle Quarantine Station in Quebec aboard the ship "Wm S. Hamilton" departing from the port of New Ross, Ireland but died on Grosse Isle in July 1847 
- Mr. John Baldwin, aged 2 who was emigrating through Grosse Isle Quarantine Station, Quebec aboard the ship "Free Trader" departing 22nd June 1847 from Liverpool, England the ship arrived on 14th August 1847 but he died on board 
Baldwin Settlers in Canada in the 20th Century
Baldwin migration to Australia +
Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:
Baldwin Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
- Miss Margaret Baldwin, (b. 1783), aged 30, Irish convict who was convicted in Cork, Ireland for 7 years, transported aboard the "Catherine" on 8th December 1813, arriving in New South Wales, Australia
- Mr. Richard Baldwin, English convict who was convicted in Surrey, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Atlas" on 16th January 1816, arriving in New South Wales, Australia
- Maria Baldwin, English convict from Surrey, who was transported aboard the "America" on December 30, 1830, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia
- William Baldwin, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Hooghly" in 1839 
- Eliza Baldwin, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Fairlee" in 1840 
Baldwin migration to New Zealand +
Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:
Baldwin Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century
- William Baldwin, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Stately" in 1851
- Mr. William James Baldwin, (b. 1818), aged 33, British settler born in Gloucestershire travelling from London aboard the ship "Stately" arriving in Auckland, New Zealand on 1st June 1851 
- William Baldwin, aged 38, a drummer, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Inchinnan" in 1852
- Sarah Baldwin, aged 35, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Inchinnan" in 1852
- Michael Baldwin, aged 11, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Inchinnan" in 1852
Contemporary Notables of the name Baldwin (post 1700) +
- Alexander Rae "Alec" Baldwin (b. 1958), Emmy, Academy Award-nominated, and Golden Globe Award-winning, American actor, perhaps best known for his portrayal as President Donald Trump
- Edward Alfred Alexander Baldwin (1938-2021), 4th Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, a British educator, hereditary peer and Crossbench member of the House of Lords
- Peter Baldwin (1933-2015), British actor, best known for his role of Derek Wilton in the soap opera Coronation Street
- Dalton Baldwin (1931-2019), American collaborative pianist who made more than 100 recordings and won numerous prizes
- Mr. Nicholas Peter Baldwin C.B.E., British Chair for Office for Nuclear Regulation was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire on 17th June 2017, for services to Nuclear Safety and Security and to the charitable sector
- Mr. Neil Franklin Baldwin B.E.M. (b. 1946), British recipient was appointed Medallist of the British Empire Medal 29th December 2018 for services to the community in Newcastle-Under-Lyme, Staffordshire
- Mr. Albert Henry Edward Baldwin M.B.E., British recipient of the Member of the Order of the British Empire on 29th December 2018 for services to the community and to local services in St Helena 
- Thomas Baldwin (1750-1820), City Architect at Bath about the year 1775 through 1800
- Maurice Scollard Baldwin (1836-1904), Canadian Anglican Bishop from Toronto, Ontario
- James Tennant Baldwin (1933-2018), American industrial designer and writer a student and close friend of Buckminster Fuller
- . (Another 23 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Historic Events for the Baldwin family +
- Mr. Philip R Baldwin (b. 1924), English Ordinary Seaman serving for the Royal Navy from Porthill, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking 
- Mr. Kenneth E G Baldwin (b. 1905), English Stoker 1st Class serving for the Royal Navy from Coleford, Gloucester, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking 
HMS Royal Oak
- Albert Stephen Baldwin (1905-1939), born in Battersea, London, England, British Leading Signalman with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk he died in the sinking 
- Mr. Thomas Baldwin, English First Waiter from England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking 
- Mr. Edgar Baldwin, English First Waiter from Wavertree, Liverpool, England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking 
- Mr. Harry Bradley Baldwin, American 1st Class Passenger from New York, New York, USA, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking 
- Mrs. Mary Margaret Baldwin, (née MacCauley), American 1st Class Passenger from New York, New York, USA, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking 
Related Stories +
The Baldwin Motto +
The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will many families have chosen not to display a motto.
Motto: Je n'oublierai pas
Motto Translation: I will never forget.
Baldwin, Henry - History
This branch of the Baldwin family traces its lineage to Henry Baldwin of Woburn, Massachusetts. One of his sons, Benjamin Baldwin (1672/3-1759), was born in Woburn but moved and settled in Canterbury, Connecticut about 1700. Benjamin married Hannah Knowlton with whom he had eight children. Benjamin’s son Timothy (1709-1722) married Susannah Frost (d. 1795) and had six children. Timothy and Susannah had son David (1742-1826), known as Captain David. David married Esther Puffer (d. 1825) and had five children: Timothy (1775-1840), Festus (1777-1857), Susannah (b. 1780), David Clark (b. 1784) and Elijah (1783-1867). Elijah received an honorary degree from Yale in 1827, practiced medicine in Canterbury and lived on the family farm. Elijah married Hannah Bishop Burnham (1785-1866) in 1811.
Elijah and Hannah had four children: Amy (1816-1842), Esther (1814-1844), Hannah (1812-1833) and Elijah, Jr. (1820-1888). Following in his father’s footsteps, Elijah Jr. graduated from Yale in 1841 and received his medical degree from Harvard in 1845. He settled in Plainfield, Connecticut where he married Sarah Harris Mathewson (1826-1905) but moved back to Canterbury in 1855. Elijah and Sarah had six surviving children: Hannah (1855-1917), Henry (1850-1918), Sarah (b. 1846) who married Brooks Hadley of Boston, Mass., Lucy (b. 1863), Helen (b. 1865) and Abram (b. 1860).
Scope and Content
The collection of the Baldwin family of Canterbury, Connecticut, primarily consists of correspondence between family members from 1779-1917. The most extensive letter exchanges were between Amy, Esther, Hannah and brother Elijah Jr. from 1830-1833. Three letters are indexed in the African-American Bibliography at CHS: Esther Baldwin letters, 4 May 1833, and 29 June 1833, and Harriet B. Baldwin letter 28 July 1833.
Elijah Baldwin Jr., his wife Sarah and their children maintain their correspondence between 1865 and 1878. These letters provide insight into the concerns of a mother about her children’s deportment, health, studies and clothes. She also conveys her emotions on having her children leave the farm and frequently gives moral advice. Among Elijah Baldwin Jr.’s correspondents is C. S. Brainard, a former classmate, with who he exchanges thoughts about science and philosophy.
Correspondence is arranged chronologically. Mixed within the letters are deeds and land surveys, accounts, court documents, military exemptions, probate records, bills of sale, and political memorabilia. One particular document from 1840 predicts the results of the upcoming elections. A detailed item by item description of these mixed folders is available with the collection.
Following the correspondence and mixed documents is a series of land deeds. These are followed by assorted documents arranged by individual. Captain David Baldwin’s papers include correspondence, land and financial records. Elijah Baldwin Jr. is represented by numerous essays, one about the benefits of the study of biography, and two draft letters to the President on the topics of temperance and the "party spirit." Elijah asserts both are essential for a strong republic. Esther, Festus, Hannah, Hannah Burnham Baldwin and Henry are all represented by undated correspondence and assorted financial records such as bills, notes, accounts and receipts.
Of particular interest among the papers are two folders of documents related to the town of Canterbury. These include assorted tax documents, records of caring for the poor, land documents, and financial records.
The next largest portion of the collection consists of bills, receipts, accounts, and notes arranged by person and then chronologically by month. The financial records of Elijah Sr. and Elijah Jr. may be intermingled since they overlapped in their professions and residence from 1841-1855. Among Elijah Jr.’s records and bills and accounts for building a house.
There are no restrictions on access to the collection.
Use of the material requires compliance with the Connecticut Historical Society's Research Center regulations.
Judge Henry Baldwin
We have been aware of Judge Henry Baldwin’s illustrious career and his minor place in Bridgeville history for a number of years. We know that he built a summer home, Recreation, in what is now the Greenwood neighborhood in Bridgeville in the early 1800s, which he eventually sold to Moses Coulter in 1818.
We know that the eastern end of Station Street was originally a country lane leading from the Washington Pike to Recreation. We know that Coulter sold Recreation to the Walter Foster family in 1842. They in turn sold it to Dr. William Gilmore in 1879, who left it to his daughter, Capitola, when he died. She married Ulysses. L. Donaldson in 1888 the Donaldson family maintained it until it was demolished in the mid-1900s.
Our study of Pop Ferree’s workbooks documenting the early real estate transactions in the Bridgeville area have turned up information that suggests that Judge Baldwin played a much bigger role in the development of our community than we had realized. Consequently it is appropriate that we review his career and then discuss this role.
Henry Baldwin was born in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1780. He graduated from Yale at the age of seventeen and then read law at the Litchfield Law School for a year. In 1799 he moved to western Pennsylvania and was elected as the first district attorney for Crawford County.
By 1802 he was in Pittsburgh, combining a successful law practice with lucrative investments in the iron-making industry. Following the death of his wife Marina Baldwin married Sally Ellicott in 1805. Along with his associate, Walter Forward, and their close friend, Tarleton Bates, Baldwin was a member of “The Great Triumvirate”, a trio of three staunch “Constitutionalists” supporting Governor McKean.
In 1805 they took control of “The Tree of Liberty”, Pittsburgh’s second newspaper, a Democratic-Republican organ established in opposition to John Scull’s “Weekly Gazette”, a publication with Federalist leanings.
Discord over McKean’s re-election campaign ultimately led to Bates’ death in a duel on January 8, 1806. It was the last duel to be fought in Pittsburgh Bates’ death was a major shock for Baldwin. The site of the duel is the end of Bates Street, at the Monongahela River.
In 1816 Baldwin was elected to the United States House of Representatives, where he served for three terms. While in Congress he earned the gratitude of Andrew Jackson for defending Jackson’s unauthorized invasion of Spanish Florida in 1818. He then supported Jackson’s unsuccessful candidacy for the presidency in 1824 and his successful one four years later.
Jackson rewarded Baldwin’s loyalty by nominating him as Secretary of the Treasury. Strong opposition by Vice President John C. Calhoun, who feared Baldwin’s preference for tariffs, derailed that attempt. When Bushrod Washington died, Jackson appointed Baldwin as an Associate Judge of the United States Supreme Court in 1830. He served on the court until his death in 1844.
Baldwin’s years on the high court were significant. He is credited with initiating the practice of publishing dissenting opinions on non-unanimous verdicts. John Marshall was Chief Justice it was his practice to render decisions with no explanation of the opposing arguments. Baldwin chose to publish independently the dissenting opinion, the permanent record of the other side of the debate.
Two of his dissents are cited in Wikipedia. In “Worcester vs Georgia”, 1832, he affirmed the right of the state (Georgia) to deny the sovereignty of the Cherokee Indians as a nation. Similarly, in “Groves vs. Slaughter”, 1841, he upheld the classification of slaves as “property”, a precedent later followed in the “Dred Scott” decision.
Baldwin died in 1844. His legacy is his published dissents and a remarkable document he wrote in 1837 in which he advocated a centrist position between the two extreme judicial factions, the strict interpreters of the Constitution and the evolutionary ones. One wishes he were on the high court today.
A remarkable entry in Pop Ferree’s workbook, on November 8, 1813, records the sale of 2023 acres of land in the Bridgeville area, by Presley Neville, to Henry Baldwin for $32,000. The land includes six major sites – Wingfield (588 acres), Reno (310 acres), Bower Hill (256 acres), Redman’s Place (265 acres), Sidgefield (404 acres), and Wheatfarm (200 acres).
Referring to the Allegheny County Warrantee Atlas gives us a good idea of what this encompassed. Wingfield was Alexander Fowler’s property on the east side of Chartiers Creek from Bridgeville south to Mayview (now known as Hastings). Reno is the Benjamin Rennoe warrant which covered most of Bridgeville northeast of Station Street. The other four occupy the southwest corner of Scott Township, bounded by Painter’s Run on the south and Scrubgrass on the north.
This is an impressive block of land for one man to own. Presley Neville was heavily involved in real estate in this area at the time although he had moved to Pittsburgh, where he served as Burgess from 1804 to 1805. He would have been the perfect person to organize such a transaction. He did indeed retain ownership of “Woodville” at that time.
Baldwin’s motives for such a move are a puzzle. Perhaps he was a land speculator or possibly a serious investor with ambitious plans for this area. The price he paid, $16.00 an acre, appears to be excessive George Washington had sold his Miller’s Run property for $4.25 per acre twenty years earlier. Thirty-two thousand dollars in 1813 was a fortune, equivalent to five or six million dollars today.
At any rate the Greenwood neighborhood was part of the Rennoe warrant and we presume that 1813 is when Baldwin built Recreation. This was, of course, prior to his becoming a Congressman, a time when his primary occupation was that of an attorney.
On September 10, 1814, Baldwin paid Stephen Barlow $2,400 for three plots totaling 875 acres – “Reno Place”, “Dennison’s”, and “Wingfield”. We presume these were blocks of land that complemented his larger holdings. We suspect that “Dennison’s” applies to Dennison’s Run which may be the name of the tiny creek running down Cow Hollow to Chartiers Creek.
At any rate by this time Baldwin owned a continuous swath of land three miles long by one mile wide running all the way from Scrubgrass Run in Scott Township to Mayview in Upper St. Clair.
On July 15, 1816, Baldwin began to sell off land with a block of 396 acres going to James Sawyer for $8,000 (about $20 per acre for land he bought three years earlier for $16 per acre). This appears to be most of Wingfield, bounded on the north by the aforementioned Dennison’s Run. On the same date Mr. Sawyer sold the same property to John McKown for $8,700.
Baldwin was busy again on November 22, 1819. He traded a small plot to Moses Middlewarth for another small one, which then permitted him to sell a major block of land to Moses Coulter, 402 acres for $15,000 ($37 per acre!). Our concern that he paid too much for the land originally was unjustified. This transaction probably included Baldwin’s summer home, Recreation.
The next, and probably final, appearance of Henry Baldwin’s name in Pop Ferree’s workbook is dated November 19, 1827. It reports a sheriff’s sale of 1050 acres, “lands and tenements of Henry Baldwin, late of Allegheny County, yeoman” to the Bank of the United States for $8,000. We can understand the necessity for a sheriff’s sale the involvement of the federal bank is a puzzle.
Judge Baldwin was certainly a significant national figure in the early years of the nineteenth century. We were surprised to learn how significant he was in the early development of Bridgeville.
Built in 1843 by United States Supreme Court Justice Henry Baldwin, the Baldwin-Reynolds House Museum is the premier home of history, the arts, and cultural experiences in northwest Pennsylvania. Our mission is to bring history and the arts to life. and to the lives of our community. Through FREE tours generously sponsored by Armstrong Cable Company, an extensive event and program schedule, and complete immersion in one of the largest and most significant collections of art in western Pennsylvania, we are proud to advance this mission.
From our Biannual "Trees of Christmas" celebration to dinner theaters, lectures, and more- the museum is alive with activity year-round!
Trees of Christmas
The Meadville Garden Club has been a 40+ year partner of the museum in their decorating of the mansion for the Christmas season. Their ever popular event will return in 2021!
From the great american satirist Mark Russell, to an upcoming concert by the America's Got Talent stars, VOX, the museum brings the best and brightest minds, voices, and senses of humor to Meadville for the enjoyment and enrichment of the community.
Through a partnership with the Crawford County Convention and Visitor's Bureau as well as ONE Federal Credit Union and Ernst Seeds, the museum is proud to announce our general summer tours are free and open to the public. We couldn't be happier to bring history to life for more people each year through this program!
The Baldwin-Reynolds House Museum is so much more than a museum. From the serene gardens to the great walking areas, the museum acts as a public park, a botanical garden, and more!
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Baldwin, Henry - History
About Baldwin Crane & Equipment Corp.
In 1957, William Henry Baldwin along with his four sons (Lionel, William, David and Ernest) founded Baldwin Steel Erection. Mr. Baldwin displayed the work ethic and innovation that became the foundation for the company’s success. These principals were not new to William Baldwin. As an immigrant from Newfoundland, Canada, William began farming in New England. His Wilmington, Massachusetts based dairy farm was one of the largest in the area.
Sharing the farming responsibilities with his children, William Henry took a second job as an ironworker, which became his passion. Eventually, the Wilmington farm was sold to fund the start of Baldwin Steel Erection. With all of their energy now focused in one area, the Baldwin Family would develop one of the largest erecting companies in Boston supported by an expanding crane fleet.
With William Earl Baldwin (second generation) serving as President, the company would gain experience in erecting Boston projects such as the McCormick Building, State Street Bank and the Logan International Airport’s Northeast Terminal. The Operating experience gained by Ernest Baldwin became critical as they prepared for their next venture.
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Baldwin IV, byname Baldwin the Leper, French Baudouin le Lépreux, (born 1161—died March 1185, Jerusalem), king of Jerusalem (1174–85), called the “leper king” for the disease that afflicted him for most of his short life. His reign saw the growth of factionalism among the Latin nobility that weakened the kingdom during the years when its greatest adversary, the Muslim leader Saladin, extended his influence from Egypt to Syria.
Educated by William, archdeacon of Tyre, Baldwin was crowned four days after his father died. Too young at age 13 to rule the kingdom, he was assisted by his kinsman Raymond III, count of Tripoli, who acted as his regent until 1176. Baldwin’s health steadily deteriorated, requiring periodic appointment of other regents and contributing to power struggles among the nobility.
In November 1177 Saladin marched from Egypt to attack Ascalon, and Baldwin rushed to the aid of the city. Trapped within its fortifications, he broke out and defeated Saladin near Mont Gisard. A two-year truce was arranged in 1180, but, soon after it expired, Saladin captured Aleppo (June 1183), thus completing the encirclement of Jerusalem.
In an attempt to keep the succession to the throne in his family, the childless Baldwin crowned his nephew King Baldwin V in November 1183, naming Raymond of Tripoli and Jocelin III of Courtenay the boy’s guardians.
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Incorporated: 1900 as Alexander & Baldwin, Ltd.
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Alexander & Baldwin, Inc., one of the original 'Big Five' Hawaiian companies, is a diversified corporation with operations in ocean transportation, container leasing, food products, and property development and management. Ocean transportation, overseen by Matson Navigation Company, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary, accounts for about 56 percent of the company's revenue. Through Matson, Alexander & Baldwin (A&B) is the leading carrier of containerized cargo and automobiles between Hawaii and the U.S. Pacific Coast and is the ninth largest lessor of marine shipping containers in the world. Matson's fleet provides services to several other Pacific islands as well. Another six percent of A&B's revenue is generated by its container leasing operation, conducted through Matson Leasing Company, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Matson Navigation. A&B conducts its food products business through another wholly owned subsidiary, A&B-Hawaii, Inc. (ABHI), whose California and Hawaiian Sugar Company is the largest producer of raw sugar in Hawaii ABHI also is the largest coffee grower in the United States. Food products contributed about 31 percent of A&B's revenue in 1993. A&B's fourth major business segment, property development and management, is also conducted by ABHI. In 1994, the company owned about 94,000 acres of land in Hawaii, the majority of it on the island of Maui. Property development and management provided about seven percent of the company's 1993 revenue.
Although A&B was not incorporated until 1900, the company was founded 30 years earlier by the two men whose names it bears, Samuel T. Alexander and Henry P. Baldwin, both sons of missionaries living in Hawaii. Longtime friends, the two men began working together in the mid-1860s, when Alexander hired the younger Baldwin as his assistant in managing a sugar plantation in Waihee on the island of Maui. In 1869, the pair purchased 12 acres of land in central Maui, and, the following year, with an additional 559 acres, they established their own plantation, which marketed sugar on the mainland through such exporting firms as Castle & Cooke. Alexander and Baldwin became in-laws that year when Baldwin married Emily Alexander, his partner's sister.
By 1876, the volume of sugar cane growing on the plantation had increased so much that the readily available supply of water could not support it. To address this problem, Alexander devised a sophisticated irrigation plan that involved the construction of a gigantic ditch through rain forest terrain. The resulting Hamakua ditch, 17 miles long and capable of carrying 60 million gallons of water a day from the waters of East Maui, was completed in 1878 and served as the model for many other such irrigation projects throughout Hawaii.
The partnership of Alexander and Baldwin was incorporated in 1883 under the name Paia Plantation. That year, Alexander resigned as manager of the neighboring Haiku Sugar Company, a position he had held since before the opening of Paia, and moved to California, leaving Baldwin to manage both plantations. Over the next few years, Paia acquired controlling interest in Haiku, as the partners continued to acquire land and expand their sugar production.
In 1894, A&B launched its own sugar agency, based in San Francisco. The agency was headed by Alexander's son, Wallace, and Joseph P. Cooke, son of Castle & Cooke co-founder Amos S. Cooke. In its first year of operation, the Alexander & Baldwin agency turned a profit of $2,670. By 1899, A&B was serving as agent for a formidable collection of companies, including the Paia and Haiku plantations, the Hawaiian Sugar Company, and the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company (HC&S) and its subsidiary, Kahului Railroad Company.
By 1900, the company had outgrown its partnership structure, and a new corporation, Alexander & Baldwin, Ltd., was formed. The company's headquarters were in Honolulu, a branch office was maintained in San Francisco, and Baldwin served as president. That year, the corporation reported its first annual profit, of $150,000. A&B went into the insurance business the following year, establishing a division overseen by Alexander's son-in-law, John Waterhouse. By 1920, the division was acting as agent for several established insurance companies, including Home Insurance Company, German Alliance Insurance Association, and the Commonwealth Insurance Company, all based in New York. The insurance division thrived for several decades before it was sold off in 1967.
Another new entity, the Maui Agricultural Company (MA Co.), was founded in 1903, in order to offset the effects of the Organic Act, which limited the amount of land a new corporation could hold to 1,000 acres. In response, A&B formed five companies with less than 1,000 acres each. These five companies were then combined with the Paia and Haiku plantations to form MA Co. In MA Co. and HC&S, A&B now controlled the operations of two of Maui's most important plantations.
Samuel Alexander died in 1904. In 1906, Henry Baldwin was succeeded as manager of HC&S by his son Frank, and when Henry died five years later, Frank became HC&S president, a position he would retain until his death in 1960. Both MA Co. and HC&S prospered during the first part of the twentieth century. In 1908, the two companies jointly formed the East Maui Irrigation Company (EMI) to manage the extensive system of irrigation ditches that was in development. In 1917, MA Co. built a distillery for producing alcohol from molasses, the first such facility in the United States. HC&S completed several other major projects during this time, including the construction of the new Waihee ditch and the modernization of its power plant and other equipment. Another plantation, Kihei, was merged into HC&S during this period as well.
A&B's cargo shipping business was developed to complement its sugar operations. In 1909, the company became a minority shareholder in Matson Navigation Company, which had been handling most of A&B's shipping between Hawaii and San Francisco for years. A&B continued to increase its investment in Matson, and the company eventually became a wholly owned subsidiary of A&B in 1969.
Wallace Alexander served as CEO of A&B from 1918 to 1930. During this time, the company began marketing pineapples, EMI completed construction of the Wailoa ditch, its final major ditch project, and A&B's headquarters building in Honolulu was completed. The following year, John Waterhouse succeeded Wallace Alexander as company president.
The 1930s were a period of technological advancement in A&B's sugar operations. In 1932, the company completed construction on the Alexander Dam, one of the largest hydraulic fill earth dams in the world. The Alexander Dam, located at the company's McBryde plantation, cost over $360,000 to build and was the site of a 1930 mud slide that killed several people. Both HC&S and MA Co. switched from steam plows to tractors around this time, and HC&S began mechanical harvesting on a large scale in 1937.
A&B sold its Hawaiian Sugar Company plantation in 1941. Although this plantation remained productive and profitable, it was situated on leased land, and A&B was unable to negotiate favorable lease terms or a purchase agreement. In 1945, Waterhouse was replaced as president of A&B by J. Platt Cooke, who served for a year before turning over the office to Frank Baldwin. In 1948, the HC&S and MA Co. plantations merged, creating one large plantation operating under the HC&S name. The two plantations produced over 100,000 tons of sugar during the first year of the merger. Soon thereafter, the plantation began to phase out its railroad distribution system in favor of trucking.
At the end of the 1940s, A&B began to move into property development, forming Kahului Development Co., Ltd. as a subsidiary of HC&S. In response to the complaints of plantation employees regarding the inadequate housing available to them, Kahului Development built a new residential community, which was opened in 1950 and became known as Dream City. This development gradually evolved into the city of Kahului, Maui's most populous community.
A&B operated several general stores on plantations and railroad sites. In 1950, its stores and equipment manufacturing concerns, as well as the lumberyard and mill operations of the Kahului Railroad Company, were organized under the A&B Commercial Company. The following year, A&B opened the first A&B Super Market, as well as the Kahului Store, Maui's first complete department store.
The company made several technological strides in its sugar operations during the 1950s. In 1951, HC&S's two factories combined to produce a record 151,000 tons of sugar. Several improvements in machinery for weed control and harvesting were introduced during this time, and, in 1957, HC&S put the world's largest bagasse (cane residue) burning boiler into operation at its Paia sugar factory.
Up until the 1960s, A&B had remained essentially a sales agent that held substantial interest in the companies it represented. Its income came from agency fees and dividends on the stock it owned in its client companies. However, this began to change as A&B started turning many of its clients into subsidiaries. Much of this shift took place under C.C. Cadagan, who was named president of A&B in 1960, becoming the first chief executive from outside the founding families. In 1962, HC&S was merged into A&B, becoming a division of the company. HC&S's three subsidiaries, Kahului Railroad Company (KRR), East Maui Irrigation Company, and Kahului Development Company all became subsidiaries of A&B. A&B Commercial Company, which ran the HC&S plantation stores, was made a division. At the same time, the last word of the company's name was changed from Ltd. to Inc.
Using funds it had received from the liquidation of Honolulu Oil Corporation, a company in which it had initially invested in 1911, A&B acquired a 94 percent controlling interest in Matson Navigation Company in 1964. The following year, the company eliminated what remained of KRR's unprofitable railroad operations, and that subsidiary was later renamed Kahului Trucking & Storage, Inc. By the end of the decade, the company had terminated its pineapple business and had increased its holding in Matson to 100 percent. The McBryde and Kahuke plantations had become wholly owned subsidiaries as well.
The 1970s were a frustrating period of stalled expansion plans for A&B. In 1970, Allen Wilcox was named CEO, replacing Stanley Powell, Cadagan's successor four years earlier. Under Wilcox, A&B abandoned its plans to expand its Far East shipping operations, choosing instead to concentrate on its business closer to home, such as developing some of its Maui land for resort use. Another change in leadership took place in 1972, when Lawrence Pricher was named CEO. Under Pricher, the company launched another expansion push, which included investments in oil refiner Pacific Resources, Inc. and Teakwood Holdings Ltd. (a Hong Kong furniture company), the purchase of Rogers Brothers Co., (an Idaho potato business), and the formation of a consulting firm called A&B Agribusiness Corporation. None of these ventures proved particularly fruitful, and, at the same time, some earlier investments that also proved unprofitable were sold off, including Edward R. Bacon Company and Acme Fast Freight, Inc. With the price of sugar falling, and profits at Matson unimpressive, A&B's net income remained sluggish through the mid-1970s.
Yet another change in command took place in 1978, when Gilbert Cox left Amfac Inc., Hawaii's biggest sugar producer, to assume the presidency of A&B. Cox's strategy for growth involved selling off most of Pricher's small acquisitions, such as the potato company, and using the money for a major acquisition. In 1979, an agreement was reached under which A&B would acquire the 80 percent of Pacific Resources it did not already own. However, this deal fell through following opposition from a group of stockholders led by well-known investor Harry Weinberg.
The rapid succession of new presidents at A&B finally slowed in 1980 with the arrival of Robert Pfeiffer, formerly the CEO at Matson. An upward swing in sugar prices helped boost the company's profits that year, and, by 1983, sugar accounted for 21 percent of A&B's $395 million in sales. As the company again considered diversification, Harry Weinberg, Hawaii's largest individual landowner, increased his holding in A&B to 25 percent. In 1984, Weinberg forced a proxy battle for control of the company, arguing that A&B's land holdings were worth far more than its books indicated and that property development should be the company's top priority. Unlike most of his boardroom conflicts with large Hawaiian companies, however, this one ended with Weinberg and his associates forced off the A&B board of directors.
In January 1987, A&B got rid of its merchandising division, selling A&B Commercial Company to Monarch Building Supply, Inc., a Honolulu-based company. By this time, A&B had revenues of $655 million, the bulk of which was generated by Matson, which controlled about 75 percent of the container cargo shipping market between Hawaii and the West Coast. Between 1983 and 1987, profits more than doubled to $120 million, and about three-fourths of that total came from Matson. In the late 1980s, A&B sold off its remaining shares of Pacific Resources to Australia's Broken Hill Proprietary Company and began preparing to grow coffee through a joint venture between its McBryde subsidiary and Hills Brothers. A&B recorded net income of $199 million on revenue of $846 million in 1989. Two years later Pfeiffer passed the reins of the company to John C. Couch, who became president and CEO. Couch had served A&B for 15 years, initially with Matson Navigation Company.
A&B's revenues stagnated and net income slumped during the first part of the 1990s. With sales hovering around the $750 million mark from 1990 to 1992, company earnings dipped to under $19 million in 1992, the lowest level in over a decade. That figure included a $15.8 million charge to cover losses from Hurricane Iniki, which devastated Kauai in 1992. Nevertheless, A&B mounted a successful comeback the following year. The company reported major increases in both profit and revenue, up to $67 million and $979 million, respectively. Moreover, in June 1993, A&B's purchase of the 72 percent of California and Hawaiian Sugar Company that it did not already own helped bolster revenues and profits. As the global economy improved during the first half of 1994, A&B expected to see gains in its shipping and container leasing operations, as well as increased profits from real estate leasing. A&B was the last of Hawaii's Big Five companies to remain independent and based on the islands its durability over more than a century of operation has proven that a mainland address is not a prerequisite for long-term success.
Principal Subsidiaries: A&B-Hawaii, Inc. A&B Development Company A&B Properties, Inc. California and Hawaiian Sugar Company East Maui Irrigation Company, Ltd. Kahului Trucking & Storage, Inc. Kauai Commercial Company, Inc. Kukui'ula Development Company, Inc. McBryde Sugar Company, Ltd. South Shore Community Services, Inc. South Shore Resources, Inc. WDCI, Inc. Matson Navigation Company, Inc. Matson Intermodal System, Inc. Matson Leasing Company, Inc. Matson Services Company, Inc. Matson Terminals, Inc.
'Alexander & Baldwin: Cutting Sugar's Role with Big Acquisitions,' Business Week, February 12, 1979, pp. 88-91.
'Alexander & Baldwin: Will It Put Its Money Where Its Mouth Is?' Business Week, March 19, 1984, pp. 92-93.
Beauchamp, Marc, 'Hunkering Down Is No Strategy,' Forbes, October 31, 1988, pp. 54-62.
'Can Alexander & Baldwin Do It Again?' Financial World, May 15, 1981, pp. 27-28.
Christensen, Kathryn, 'After Years of Turmoil, a Hawaii Sugar Firm Returns to Stability,' Wall Street Journal, August 20, 1981 p. 1.
Cieply, Michael, 'East of Eden,' Forbes, January 31, 1983, pp. 34-36.
Davies, John, 'Coffee Replaces Sugar in Some Hawaiian Fields,' Journal of Commerce, July 9, 1990, p. 1A.
Garcia, Art, 'Spotlight on Alexander & Baldwin,' Journal of Commerce, April 7, 1980, p. 3.
'An Hawaiian Company Invests Its Sugar Profits,' Business Week, April 14, 1975, pp. 80-81.
Smith, Christopher, and Cynthia Green, 'A Seasoned Raider Loses His Touch,' Business Week, May 13, 1985, p. 31.
'A Sweet Stock from the Islands,' Fortune, November 25, 1985, pp. 161-68.
Wastler, Allen R., 'Accounting Changes, Iniki Fallout Depress Alexander & Baldwin Profit,' Journal of Commerce, February 3, 1993, p. 1B.
Zipser, Andy, 'When Its Ship Comes In,' Barron's, pp. 28-29.
Source: International Directory of Company Histories , Vol. 10. St. James Press, 1995.