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John Sidney Crosland, the son of the Reverend James Louis Crosland and his wife Constance Davidson Crosland, was born in Rustington on 17th October, 1911. His mother's family was very wealthy and John received an expensive education. (1)
The British Union of Fascists (BUF) was formed by Oswald Mosley, on 1st October, 1932. It originally had only 32 members and included Cynthia Mosley, Robert Forgan, William E. Allen, and John Beckett. Mosley told them: "We ask those who join us... to be prepared to sacrifice all, but to do so for no small or unworthy ends. We ask them to dedicate their lives to building in the country a movement of the modern age... In return we can only offer them the deep belief that they are fighting that a great land may live." (2)
Attempts were made to keep the names of individual members a secret but supporters of the organization included Charles Bentinck Budd, Harold Harmsworth (Lord Rothermere), Major General John Fuller, Jorian Jenks, Commander Charles E. Hudson, Wing-Commander Louis Greig, A. K. Chesterton, David Bertram Ogilvy Freeman-Mitford (Lord Redesdale), Unity Mitford, Diana Mitford, Patrick Boyle (8th Earl of Glasgow), Malcolm Campbell and Tommy Moran. Mosley refused to publish the names or numbers of members but the press estimated a maximum number of 35,000. (3)
John Sidney Crosland joined the British Union of Fascists on 12th December 1932 after reading Oswald Mosley's book Greater Britain. The part he says he was really interested in was the Imperial Policy of Empire Trade. Around this time he bought some land in Nuthurst, near Horsham. He wanted to take up farming but the family trustees would not agree to the money being put up for the farm and he was forced to sell it. (4)
William Joyce was appointed as the BUF's full-time propaganda director. He was a close friend of the family and was often seen in Rustington: "John Sidney George Crosland and William Joyce were often to be seen, by very many local people, playing tennis together at one of the several tennis courts in Rustington, especially at the courts in Seafield Road... It seems that for some time none of the villagers knew we had one of the Blackshirt bases here in Rustington." (5)
Violet Watts, was a 19-year-old housemaid working at the Crosland's home. She later recalled: "Mrs Crosland told me that William Joyce was a great friend of theirs in particular old Mr Crosland who was the vicar of Rustington. She told me Joyce had stayed in Room No 6 during the previous summer... I was told by Mrs Crosland not to believe things that were being said about Joyce as he was a very nice man and was trained at the London University and was very high class." (6)
John Crosland and his father James Louis Crosland established a branch of the BUF in Rustington. The headquarters was at 29 High Street. They held some of the meetings at Rustington Vicarage and John sold copies of The Blackshirt on the corner of Beach Road. One of John's early recruits was Commander Charles E. Hudson. According to Hudson's daughter. "In the early 1930's my father was already in his 60's when they met, John in his 20's... John was an enthusiastic Mosleyite and persuaded my father join and eventually became Leader for Sussex." (7) A secret police report stated that Crosland was the BUF's Regional Inspector and "was one of the most important, if not the most important official of the British Union in Sussex." (8)
It was claimed that Rev. James Louis Crosland, as head of Rustington Church School, tried to influence the children into understanding and believing that Adolf Hitler was "trying to do what he could to make Europe a much better place and he should be admired and respected as a wonderful leader". In some cases, parents arranged for their children to go to school outside the village. (9)
John Sidney Crosland became the leader of the BUF in Rustington. He was also his father's warden at the church and served on the Rustington Parish Council. The BUF was especially strong in Sussex. A MI5 report stated: "Throughout the country the movement was well organized, led by enthusiastic persons and persistently active until the time the principal members were arrested... The Chief Constable estimated the number of adherents in Bognor as about 300.... Worthing membership was estimated to be about 60...As to the amount of activity, we know that the area was of sufficient importance of Mosley himself to speak at four meetings in recent times." (10)
Mosley had developed a large following in Sussex after the election of Charles Bentinck Budd, the fascists only councillor. Budd arranged for Oswald Mosley and William Joyce to address a meeting at the Worthing Pavilion Theatre on 9th October, 1934. James and John Crosland also went to the meeting. The BUF covered the town with posters with the words "Mosley Speaks", but during the night someone had altered the posters to read "Gasbag Mosley Speaks Tripe". It was later discovered that this had been done by Roy Nicholls, the chairman of the Young Socialists. (11)
The venue was packed with fascist supporters from Sussex. Surprisingly they were willing to pay between 1s.6d and 7s. for their tickets. According to Michael Payne: "Finally the curtain rose to reveal Sir Oswald himself standing alone on the stage. Clad entirely in black, the great silver belt buckle gleaming, the right arm raised in the Fascist salute, he was spell-bindingly illuminated in the hushed, almost reverential atmosphere by the glare of spotlights from right, left and centre. A forest of black-sleeved arms immediately shot up to hail him." (12)
The meeting was disrupted when a few hecklers were ejected by hefty East End bouncers. Mosley, however, continued his speech undaunted, telling his audience that Britain's enemies would have to be deported: "We were assaulted by the vilest mob you ever saw in the streets of London - little East End Jews, straight from Poland. Are you really going to blame us for throwing them out?" (13)
At the close of proceedings Mosley and Joyce, accompanied by a large body of blackshirts, marched along the Esplanade.They were protected by all nineteen available members of the Borough's police force. The crowd of protesters, estimated as around 2,000 people, attempted to block their path. A ninety-six-year-old woman, Doreen Hodgkins, was struck on the head by a Blackshirt before being escorted away. When the Blackshirts retreated inside, the crowd began to chant: "Poor old Mosley's got the wind up!" (14)
The Fascists went into Montague Street in an attempt to get to their headquarters in Anne Street. The author of Storm Tide: Worthing 1933-1939 (2008) has pointed out: "Sir Oswald, clearly out of countenance and feeling menaced, at once ordered his tough, battle-hardened bodyguards - all of imposing physique and, like their leader, towering over the policemen on duty - to close ranks and adopt their fighting stance which, unsurprisingly, as all were trained boxers, had been modelled on, and closely resembled, that of a prize fighter." (15)
Superintendent Clement Bristow later claimed that a crowd of about 400 people attempted to stop the Blackshirts from getting to their headquarters. Francis Skilton, a solicitor's clerk who had left his home at 30 Normandy Road to post a letter at the Central Post Office in Chapel Road, and got caught up in the fighting. A witness, John Birts, later told the police that Skilton had been "savagely attacked by at least three Blackshirts." (16)
According to The Evening Argus: "The fascists fought their way to Mitchell's Cafe and barricaded themselves inside as opponents smashed windows and threw tomatoes. As midnight loomed, they broke out and marched along South Street to Warwick Street. One woman bystander was punched in the face in what witnesses described as 'guerrilla warfare'. There were casualties on both sides as a 'seething, struggling mass of howling people' became engaged in running battles. People in nightclothes watched in amazement from bedroom windows overlooking the scene." (17)
The next day the police arrested Charles Bentinck Budd, Oswald Mosley, William Joyce and Bernard Mullans and accused them of "with others unknown they did riotously assemble together against the peace". The court case took place on 14th November 1934. Charles Budd claimed that he telephoned the police three times on the day of the rally to warn them that he believed "trouble" had been planned for the event. A member of the Anti-Fascist New World Fellowship had told him that "we'll get you tonight". Budd had pleaded for police protection but only four men had turned up that night. He argued that there had been a conspiracy against the BUF that involved both the police and the Town Council. (18)
James Louis Crosland gave evidence in support of Budd, Mosley, Joyce and Mullans. The Worthing Gazette reported: "The Rev. James Louis Crosland, Vicar of Rustington, said he was a non-active member of the British Union of Fascists. He described the crowd as acting in rather a threatening attitude and said he had to force his way through them." Eric Neve (the counsel for the prosecution) asked Crosland if he supported Fascist policy. He replied: "If it came to be a choice between that and something worse I should probably choose it." (19)
John Flowers, the prosecuting council told the jury that "if you come to the conclusion that there was an organised opposition by roughs and communists and others against the Fascists... that this brought about the violence and that the defendants and their followers were protecting themselves against violence, it will not be my duty to ask you to find them guilty." The jury agreed and all the men were found not guilty. (20)
It is believed that John Crosland was behind the letter written by his father to Adolf Hitler in April 1936. The staff of Rustington Church School were asked to sign the letter before it was sent to Germany: "In order that you may be able to fully understand the attitude of the British people towards the proposals put forward by the German Government, we the undersigned take this opportunity as representative of public opinion, to write and express our full approval of the proposals, and also our deep sympathy and understanding for the German people in their sincere effort to bring a lasting peace to the disturbed and troubled continent of Europe. We feel that the proposals contain in themselves the essence of a plan which could bring a new order of civilization undreamt of in the annals of history and which would once and for all establish the peace of Europe on a solid and lasting foundation."
The letter went on to say: "We sympathise with the German nation in their struggle for equal status with the other great nations of Europe, and we realise that a country with so high a culture, which has contributed so much in the field of music, science, and art, should find a worthy and honoured place in the community of nations. We realise the work that your Excellency has done for Germany in particular, and for Europe as a whole is driving the menace of Communism from our midst, and we desire above all a friendship with Germany and the German people. We firmly reject the proposed Staff talks as monstrous, they are entirely out of sympathy with the feelings of the British nation, and we accord our warmest approval action of the German Government in their re-militarisation of the Rhine zone as a counter measure to the Franco-Soviet Pact." (21)
Miss Boniface, headmistress of East Street Girls' School, in Littlehampton, and district representative to the County Education Board, later recalled that in 1936 she was contacted by a teacher at Rustington Church School that Rev. Crosland had been circulating this letter to Hitler to the staff and asking them to sign it. Miss Boniface told the teacher that on no account should the staff give their signatures to such a document. (22)
Rev. James Louis Crosland continued to be a supporter of the British Union of Fascists. In 1938 he arranged for John Sidney Crosland and William Joyce, wearing their blackshirt uniforms, to lecture to the children. "It seems the objective was to introduce the young minds and bodies to a militaristic routine at an early age, in order to prepare them for the struggle for power in the war which was to come." (23)
John Sidney Crosland also took an active role in local politics. According to the Worthing Herald, although "an active member of the Fascist Party... he was also a member of West Sussex County Council (3½ years), of Rustington Parish Council (4 years) and one of the most energetic members of the Rustington Ratepayers' Association." (24) Between 1935 and 1938 he was a member of the Special Constabulary. (25)
The Second World War began on 3rd September, 1939. John Crosland continued to be a member of the British Union of Fascists. According to a police report: "He (Crosland) was indefatigable in his activities, and a search of the property of the other officials of the Party in Sussex shows almost invariably quantities of correspondence with Crosland upon all sorts of fascist activities... Crosland organised meetings in the district, and in some cases was the speaker... He wrote to District Leaders urging the necessity of increasing the sale of Action as it is the best medium of propaganda that our movement possesses." (26)
Winston Churchill became prime minister in May 1940 and warned that a German invasion was imminent and announced the imposition of Defence Regulation 18B. This legislation, passed on 22nd May, 1940, gave the Home Secretary the right to imprison without trial anybody he believed likely to "endanger the safety of the realm". Over the next few weeks 1,769 British subjects were interned of whom 763 had been members of the British Union of Fascists. (27)
Of the fascists British fascists arrested over 600 came from Sussex. This included John Sidney Crosland, Charles Bentinck Budd, Charles E. Hudson and Norah Elam. (28) When Crosland was arrested the police reported: "Among his property was found: (i) Two photographs of Hitler; (ii) Complete Fascist uniform; (iii) Nazi Badge; (iv) Large quantity of Fascist literature; (v) Hand drawn map of East Sussex (where recent bombing raids have taken place)." It was feared that he was sending information to Germany and the report concluded that "the Chief Constable of West Sussex regards Crosland as a very dangerous person." (29)
When the police searched Crosland's home they found a great deal of Nazi literature. On the back of one of the photographs of Adolf Hitler was written: "Dear Sidney, I hope you will enjoy this picture of your beloved Hitler." He also had documents that gave German wavelengths and and times of foreign broadcasts. There was also letters that suggested that as late as August 1939 he intended to travel to Germany by motor car. (30)
In a letter to the General Accident Fire & Life Association he wrote: "I shall be leaving by the night boat from Dover to Ostend on Friday 1st September, next, I should be glad if you will kindly hold me covered for one month's touring in these countries. I have to inform you that there will be two drivers, myself and Commander Hudson of Limmer Lane, Felpham, near Bognor-Regis, Sussex, but I understand my Policy covers any number of qualified drivers." (31)
The authorities considered the possibility that Crosland and Hudson had been providing information to the Nazi government and that they were planning to flee to Nazi Germany. This is what William Joyce had done on the 26th August and by 18th September, he had began broadcasting in the Reichsrundfunk's English-language service, initially as a newsreader. Within a few years he had become Germany's principal English-language broadcaster and became known as "Lord Haw-Haw". (32)
Rev. James Louis Crosland was not interned but he was forced to resign. He left Rustington and went to live at The Priory in Cross-in-Hand. (33) Some historians have been surprised the Rev. Crosland was not interned. A government report pointed out: "The internment of the persons whose cases have come before the Committee or whose cases are sent herewith has done much to stamp out Fascist activity in West Sussex, but it is evident that there are still fascist sympathizers and that the return of any of their Leaders might well cause a recrudescence of their activities." (34)
John Sidney Crosland and Commander Charles E. Hudson served their sentence at the Huyton Internment Camp on the Isle of Man. According to Hudson's daughter, Crosland and Hudson were treated very well and shared their own house with two German prisoners of war as servants. (35)
Rev. Crosland pleaded for his son's release: "My wide experience in life has taught me this fact - no accused person is able to defend himself adequately in a trial against lies which are in circulation about him. He may deny them, but that is not enough.... But I appeal on higher reasons than that. I put it to you. Here am I an old man broken in health physically incapable of looking after my son's farm of 16 acres, would it not be more advantageous to the State and welfare of our country's need in this time of great danger to release him so that he could do something towards the production of food, provided that he abstained from all politics during the war and that he was under the supervision of the East Sussex Police?" (36)
John Sidney Crosland was eventually released on 21st August, 1941. He went to live with his parents and took over the running of the farm. The Chief Constable of East Sussex reported on 17th May 1942, to the Home Office, that he was "working extremely hard and seems to have put his heart and soul into the work he has undertaken and suggested that consideration be given to the question of revoking the restriction order." (37)
James Louis Crosland died in 1943. Following the death of his mother, Constance, in 1949, he moved to another farm at Froxfield Green, near Petersfield. He returned to politics and represented the Conservative Party on the local council. (38)
John Sidney Crosland died in 1995.
Worthing was the hotbed and was known as the Munich of the South. In the early 1930s, branches of Mosley's British Union of Fascists were already being set up along this part of the West Sussex coast. These branches being in Chichester, Bognor, Littlehampton, Worthing, Burgess Hill, Horsham, Petworth and Selsey.
In Chichester they held premises in East Street and very regular meetings outside the city's market gates, whereas in Bognor meetings were held near the Marine Gardens and in Waterloo Square. In Littlehampton, the fascist newspaper, Blackshirt, was hawked on the corner of Beach Road and the High Street, John Sidney Crosland being one of the sellers; their headquarters was at 29 High Street, somc group meetings were also being held at the Rustington Vicarage. By early 1934, 110 copies of the Blackshirt newspaper were sold in one week.
Mr. John Flowers, K. C. and Mr. Eric Never were counsel for the prosecution, Mr. St John Hutchinson appeared for Sir Oswald Mosley, Joyce and Mullan; and Mr. H.V.O. Jackson for Budd.
The next witness for the defence, the Rev. He described the crowd as acting in rather a threatening attitude and said he had to force his way through them.
Mr Eric Neve (counsel for the prosecution) asked witness if he would support Fascist policy.... Crosland replied: "If it came to be a choice between that and something worse I should probably choose it."
Norah Elam, of the Old Forge, North Chapel, Woman Organiser of the British Union of Fascists for Sussex and Hampshire, said that as she left the Pavilion two women said: "Where is he? He is afraid to come out. He always does this: let us spit on him." She became wedged in the crowd and a man made a filthy remark to her."
Eric Redwood, a Chiddingfold barrister, said he had nothing to do with the Fascists. The crowd were sinister and definitely hostile restraint. He thought Sir Oswald acted with restraint which was admirable and which very few Englishmen would have used in the circumstances...
Joseph Hanford, of Plaistow, Sussex, and a member of the Union, said that the crowd were asking for Sir Oswald in an offensive way and the crowd made one mad rush at him when he came out of the Pavilion. People outside the cafe used words to the effect that Sir Oswald was funky to came out and if he did not would destroy the building. He recognised one man in the crowd as of the "foreign element" - that was to say, a Communist.
In order that you may be able to fully understand the attitude of the British people towards the proposals put forward by the German Government, we the undersigned take this opportunity as representative of public opinion, to write and express our full approval of the proposals, and also our deep sympathy and understanding for the German people in their sincere effort to bring a lasting peace to the disturbed and troubled continent of Europe.
We feel that the proposals contain in themselves the essence of a plan which could bring a new order of civilization undreamt of in the annals of history and which would once and for all establish the peace of Europe on a solid and lasting foundation.
We sympathise with the German nation in their struggle for equal status with the other great nations of Europe, and we realise that a country with so high a culture, which has contributed so much in the field of music, science, and art, should find a worthy and honoured place in the community of nations. We firmly reject the proposed Staff talks as monstrous, they are entirely out of sympathy with the feelings of the British nation, and we accord our warmest approval action of the German Government in their re-militarisation of the Rhine zone as a counter measure to the Franco-Soviet Pact.
We sincerely trust that this letter may reach your Excellency safely and that it will give you an idea of the opinion of the British people.
Of all the counties in the South of England Sussex is the most important from the Fascist point of view. Throughout the country the movement was well organized, led by enthusiastic persons and persistently active until the time the principal members were arrested. In Sussex itself, the movement was strongest in West Sussex, although there were numbers of other districts with strong active memberships, such as Hastings and Brighton.
Commander Hudson whose detention the committee has decided must be continued was the leading man in West Sussex, although he was energetically supported by a number of able subordinates. Working in close co-operation with him as Regional Inspector of the whole of Sussex was J.S.G. Crosland whose case is one of those now sent to the Committee...
The Chief Constable estimated the number of adherents in Bognor as about 300. Upon the search of Commander Hudson's premises there were found lists of names, addresses and dates of enrolment of members in his district, which included Bognor and Chichester, and these total 250-300...
As to the amount of activity, we know that the area was of sufficient importance for Mosley himself to speak at four meetings in recent times, the last being in February of this year at the Theatre Royal Bognor, and the Chief Constable reports that there were numerous parades and meetings, both open-air and indoor.
This man is the son of the Vicar of Rustington and has been an active member of the Fascist Party since 1932. His father was also a Fascist and gave evidence on his behalf of Mosley when the latter was charged with riot after disturbances at a Fascist meeting in Worthing in 1934. The son was County Volunteer Transport Organiser and Regional Inspector. In the latter capacity, he was one of the most important, if not the most important official of the British Union in Sussex. He was indefatigable in his activities, and a search of the property of the other officials of the Party in Sussex shows almost invariably quantities of correspondence with Crosland upon all sorts of fascist activities right up to the date of his arrest. On 23rd May, after Mosley's arrest, he sent out the letter to District Leaders urging them to continue their functions within the limits of the law... On 1st June 1940... he wrote to District Leaders urging the necessity of increasing the sale of Action as it is the best medium of propaganda that our movement possesses.
The Chief Constable of West Sussex further reports that Crosland's pro-Nazi views were well known and that he was friendly with the leaders of the movement, including William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw) who on occasions stayed at the Rectory. He has been to Germany on several occasions... In April of this year he moved to the house of Jorian Jenks from which he carried on his Fascist activities... The Chief Constable of West Sussex regards Crosland as a very dangerous person. Among his property was found: (i) Two photographs of Hitler; (ii) Complete Fascist uniform; (iii) Nazi Badge; (iv) Large quantity of Fascist literature; (v) Hand drawn map of East Sussex (where recent bombing raids have taken place).
I am an old man in failing health and have been obliged to retire from my living on account of a weak heart. I have been nearly 50 years in Holy Orders, and therefore have had wide experience in the affairs of Church and State. Experience has taught me one thing in particular that no man can hold any public position of importance without coming in contact with a certain class of people who through jealousy propagate lies about one's character and purity of intention.
Now I have reason to believe that my son who holds a public position on the West Sussex County Council is undergoing that bitter experience of false friends. You say in your letter that, "The Advisory Committee who examined his case gave him every opportunity to clear up any matters which appeared to be to his prejudice".
My wide experience in life has taught me this fact - no accused person is able to defend himself adequately in a trial against lies which are in circulation about him. He may deny them, but that is not enough. He ought to explain how those lies were started and no accused person can do that without considerable thought. Under such circumstances he requires an advocate to plead for him. Even Ministers of the Crown in Parliament rarely answer a question without notice having first been given.
But I appeal on higher reasons than that. Here am I an old man broken in health physically incapable of looking after my son's farm of 16 acres, would it not be more advantageous to the State and welfare of our country's need in this time of great danger to release him so that he could do something towards the production of food, provided that he abstained from all politics during the war and that he was under the supervision of the East Sussex Police?
If I thought for one moment that my son was disloyal to his country I would not have written this letter nor would I plead for his freedom.
Will you kindly give him the chance?
For man looks on the outward appearance, but God looks on the heart. Man considers the actions, but God weighs the intentions.
(1) Graeme Taylor & Mary Taylor, Winds of Change (2015) page 101
(2) Oswald Mosley, speech (1st October, 1932)
(3) Robert Benewick, The Fascist Movement in Britain (1972) page 110
(4) Graeme Taylor & Mary Taylor, Winds of Change (2015) page 139
(5) Graeme Taylor & Mary Taylor, Winds of Change (2015) page 111
(6) Violet Watts, statement (October, 1940)
(7) Diana Bailey, letter to Graeme Taylor & Mary Taylor (11th November, 2014)
(8) Police report on John Sidney Crosland (26th August, 1940)
(9) Graeme Taylor & Mary Taylor, Winds of Change (2015) page 117
(10) S. H. Noakes, Statement of Case Against John Sydney George Crosland (26th August, 1940)
(11) Roy Nicholls, Worthing Gazette (9th December, 1970)
(12) Michael Payne, Storm Tide: Worthing 1933-1939 (2008) page 44
(13) Worthing Gazette (5th November, 1934)
(14) Chris Hare, Worthing: A History (2008) page 177
(15) Michael Payne, Storm Tide: Worthing 1933-1939 (2008) page 45
(16) The Daily Herald (24th October, 1934)
(17) The Evening Argus (23rd January, 2003)
(18) Michael Payne, Storm Tide: Worthing 1933-1939 (2008) page 47
(19) The Worthing Gazette (21st November 1934)
(20) Coventry Evening Telegraph (17th December, 1934)
(21) Reverand James Louis Crosland, letter to Adolf Hitler (April, 1936)
(22) Graeme Taylor & Mary Taylor, Winds of Change (2015) pages 145-146
(23) Graeme Taylor & Mary Taylor, Winds of Change (2015) page 118
(24) Worthing Herald (14th June, 1940)
(25) Report on John Sidney Crosland by the Home Office Advisory Committee (7th October, 1940)
(26) Police report on John Sidney Crosland (26th August, 1940)
(27) A. J. P. Taylor, English History: 1914-1945 (1965) page 599
(28) Michael Payne, Storm Tide: Worthing 1933-1939 (2008) page 279
(29) Police report on John Sidney Crosland (26th August, 1940)
(30) Graeme Taylor & Mary Taylor, Winds of Change (2015) pages 143-144
(31) John Sidney Crosland, letter to General Accident Fire and Life Association (22nd August, 1939)
(32) Siân Nicholas, William Joyce: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2017)
(33) Graeme Taylor & Mary Taylor, Winds of Change (2015) page 125
(34) S. Noakes, Statement of Case Against John Sydney George Crosland (26th August, 1940)
(35) Diana Bailey, The Parkes Institute for the Study of Jewish/Non-Jewish Relations (2012) page 24
(36) Reverand James Louis Crosland, letter to the Home Secretary (14th March, 1941)
(37) Report on John Sidney Crosland by the Chief Constable of East Sussex (17th May, 1942)
(38) Graeme Taylor & Mary Taylor, Winds of Change (2015) page 153
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John Barrymore, original name John Sidney Blyth, (born February 15, 1882, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.—died May 29, 1942, Hollywood, California), American actor, called “The Great Profile,” who is remembered both for his film and stage roles as a debonair leading man and for his interpretations of William Shakespeare’s Richard III and Hamlet. (See Barrymore reading from Henry VI, Part 3 .)
John was born into a theatrical family his parents, Maurice and Georgiana Barrymore, were stage actors, and his siblings, Ethel and Lionel, also became noted actors. John studied painting in Paris but returned to the United States to make his stage debut in 1903. He became a popular light comedian, but it was in serious roles that he scored his greatest stage triumphs. The most important of these were Justice (1916), Peter Ibbetson (1917), The Jest (1919), Richard III (1920), and Hamlet (New York, 1922 London, 1925). These roles led to his being acclaimed as the greatest tragedian of his generation.
Barrymore appeared in motion pictures from 1913 and gave notable performances in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1920), The Beloved Rogue (1927), Moby Dick (1930), Rasputin and the Empress (1932 the only film in which Barrymore appeared with his siblings), Grand Hotel (1932), Dinner at Eight (1933), Counsellor-at-Law (1933), Romeo and Juliet (1936), and The Great Profile (1940), in which he lampooned his own image. Though his talents were prodigious and he was considered one of the greatest and handsomest actors of the age, Barrymore became better known for his flamboyant and often outrageous behaviour, and his excessive drinking took a toll on his health and his career.
Barrymore had two children, both of whom turned to the stage. Diana (1921–60) was an actress whose promising career was frequently interrupted by alcoholism she committed suicide. Her autobiography, Too Much, Too Soon (1957), was made into a motion picture in 1958. His son, John Blyth Barrymore, Jr. (1932–2004), known as John Drew Barrymore, was also a film actor and was the father of actress Drew Barrymore (born 1975).
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Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
Sep 15 Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Nigerian writer (Half of a Yellow Sun), born in Enugu, Enugu State
- Greg Ball, American politician (Member of the New York Senate 2011-14), born in Pawling, New York Latoya Warning, Suriname 4th Miss Teenager (1993) Mike Krahulik, American illustrator (Penny Arcade) Anne-Caroline Chausson, French mountain-bike rider, born in Dijon, France Claudia Palacios, Colombian television journalist, born in Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia Louis-José Houde, Canadian stand-up comic Charmian Faulkner, Australian crime victim (went missing with her mother from St Kilda, Victoria, Australia, in 1980), born in Colac, Victoria, Australia Bucky Covington, American entertainer, born in Rockingham, North Carolina Josh Barnett, American mixed martial artist, born in Seattle, Washington Peter Mark Andrew Phillips, British son of Princess Anne, then 9th in succession to British throne Lady Davina EAB Windsor, daughter of English prince Richard Yolande James, Quebec politician Andy Beshear, American politician, Governor of Kentucky (2019-), born in Louisville, Kentucky
Dec 21 Emmanuel Macron, French politician, President of France (2017-), born in Amiens, France
THE CLASSIC MOVIE HISTORY PROJECT BLOGATHON: DON JUAN (1926 ) AND THE INTRODUCTION TO VITAPHONE
The history of cinema dates as far back as 1878 to the days of Eadweard Muybridge and his first experiment of real life motion with a horse. As the years progressed, the art of movie making flourished. In 1888, the very first movie was recorded, a two second long short film titled “The Roundhay Garden” by inventor Louis Le Prince. The movies would not be what they are today, if it weren’t for Thomas Edison, and his successful attempt at creating a motion picture camera that would lead to the birth of the movies, and his Black Maria production company. Although back then the films were only seconds long, which would gradually increase in time. One of the most enduring images from the history of cinema, is the footage of the moving train by The Lumière Brothers in 1896. The duration of film expanded in the early years of the twentieth century, and when the D. W. Griffith silent epic “Birth Of A Nation” was released, motion pictures had reached great heights.
By the time the 1920’s approached, the movies took on a new level, and were now one of the most reliable sources of entertainment. With the growing populace, films employed a masterful technique with different forms of technology being installed to enhance the productions. One of these methods was Vitaphone, the sound on disc system, which was first introduced on August 6th, 1926 in “Don Juan”, a distinguished masterpiece starring John Barrymore and Mary Astor.
The Vitaphone system was used to create sound affects on films by using a wax disc playback machine to record music and sound affects to accompany the film footage. While this took the place, the film was projected so that the conductor could synchronize the music with the visual cues.
Vitaphone is known as the only successful sound on disc system, and after the triumph of “Don Juan”, the method was applied to innumerable feature films and 1,000 short subjects made by Warner Brothers and First National between 1926 to 1931, when talking pictures were fully established.
George Groves, who is known as the first music mixer in film history for his work in “Don Juan” took on the assignment. He was the one in charge of recording the soundtrack to the film and devising an innovative, multi-microphone technique and performed a live mix of the 107-strong orchestra.
“Don Juan” is one of the most eminent productions to ever come out of Hollywood, most notably for being the first commercially released movie to have synchronized sound affects and music score through the Vitaphone cinematic sound system. The film was directed by Alan Crosland, who was known for his prolific directorial efforts in an array of silent films, including “The Jazz Singer”, a production that would cement him as a virtuoso of his craft for his work in a movie that would change the course of motion pictures. It was written for the screen by Maude Fulton with assistance from Walter Anthony, and based on Lord Byron’s famous novel of the same name. Since it’s initial release, “Don Juan” has taken on many formats, which has evolved into many remakes and sequels, that would turn it into the greatest swashbuckling epic to ever be presented on screen.
John Barrymore illuminates the screen and takes on duel roles in this perennial extravaganza about a libertine, who is pursued by a plethora of women, but falls in love with a convent girl. In the films prologue, young Don Juan witnesses his father, Don Jose ( Also played by John Barrymore ) entombing his wife’s secret lover behind a wall, and later being stabbed by one of his recently scorned females. Before he dies from the stab wound, he warns his son to be aware of giving his love to women.
Ten years later, Don Juan is now living in Rome, where he is chivvied by legions of women of the Roman aristocracy, including Lucrezia Borgia, who sends him an invitation to attend a gala. Juan accepts the invite, and when he arrives at the party, he encounters Adriana della Varnese ( Mary Astor ) who he immediately becomes enamoured by her charms. When Lucrezia discovers Juan’s affections for Adriana, she implores Adriana to marry the lecherous Count Giano Donati (Montague Love) or the Borgia’s will kill Adriana’s father, an Orsini and an enemy of the Borgia’s. It’s up to the daring Don Juan to come to her rescue, but will he pull himself away from his own harem in time?
The entire prologue is almost a film itself, with lots of intrigue and tension as Don Jose’s wife tries to conceal her lover from her husband. As Don Jose, ( Barrymore ) can barely contain his rage, and yet does so with maniacal glee, as he orders the servants to finish building the wall, knowing that the adulterer is hiding within. There’s little of that evil found in Barrymore’s portrayal of son Don Juan, but one suspects it could be triggered at any time. The actual “introduction” sequence of Barrymore as Juan is one of the film’s highlights. With the help of his servant, Pedrillo (Willard Louis), Juan not only juggles three different women, but when the husband of one of the women shows up, Juan expertly diffuses the situation, getting a hearty thanks from the Marquis, to boot. It’s a commendable sequence, with Barrymore showing terrific comedic timing while also allowing one to learn a great deal about his character.
The film also features young Myrna Loy in a small role as the Lady in Waiting. Even though her screen time is diminished in quantity, her performance is copacetic as she portrays the part of a character with a rather devilish aura. Mary Astor is exceptional, but she is mainly relegated to being the damsel in distress. It’s Estelle Taylor as Lucrezia who has the juicy female role, and she is manically brilliant. While her sequences with Barrymore are fine, her best work is when she’s simply plotting with brother Cesare Borgia (Warner Oland) and Count Giano Donati. So much evil passed off as nonchalant conversation makes these characters even more deliciously despicable, and Taylor’s Lucrezia certainly holds her own with the two powerful men.
Alan Crosland uses some interesting camera movement during the long sword fight between Juan and Count Donati. The camera moves along with the sparing enemies, sometimes actually becoming the opponent as a sword is lunged directly at the camera. The lunge is often parried by a sword coming from directly under the frame, and is a quite effective use of a first-person camera, particularly since Crosland does not carry the shots on too long. Unfortunately, much of the fight is unnecessarily sped up (which, of course, reflects the times), but the staging is terrific, and Crosland gets every inch of excitement out of the sequence that he possible could. This excitement is carried through during the films amazing climax, which has Juan single-handedly fighting of a regiment of guards, all of them on horseback. Here some of the action is difficult to follow, but since so much is happening, bearings are found again, and if there is a fault to the sequence it’s that it is too short. Aside form the action, Crosland is also quite adept at the drama and the sprinkling of comedy the film most certainly has. The acting and editing of the intricate sequence where Juan juggles his three women is fascinating, for despite the intricacies of the scene, we maintain a sense of space, knowing the whereabouts of each of the women, their situation, and, of course, Juan and Pedrillo’s ever tightening predicament. Crosland also uses lighting, particularly in the torture scene, to great effect, for it is the lighting of Barrymore’s face that enables him to go from “Hyde” to Juan in the same take.
Don Juan plants 191 kisses on various females during the course of the film, an average of one every 53 seconds.
At the film’s premiere, Will Hays , the then “Czar” and censor of the industry, contributed an on-screen introduction, talking in synchronized sound, greeting everyone in the audience with “Welcome to a new era of motion picture.” After that, the New York Philharmonic was filmed playing the overture to “Tannhäuser”, violinists Mischa Elman and Efrem Zimbalist Sr. , guitarist Roy Smeck , three opera shorts with Giovanni Martinelli Marion Talley and Anna Case , and then the feature. It was a huge success.
In the opening credits are “Inspired by the legend of the Greatest Lover of all Ages” and “A Warner Brothers Classic of the Screen”.
John Barrymore: Born John Sidney Blyth on February 15th, 1882 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Died: May 29th, 1942 in Los Angeles, California. Aged 60
Mary Astor: Born Lucile Vasconcellos Langhanke on May 3rd, 1906 in Quincy, Illinois. Died: September 25th, 1987 in Woodland Hills, California. Aged 81.
Board of Trustees
Lucy Trench (Chair) has worked in publishing and in museums, as a conservator, editor, writer and educator. She was Head of Interpretation at the Victoria and Albert Museum, then at the Science Museum. She has links with Herefordshire and with Australia.
Lord Lipsey (President & Treasurer) a life peer, chairs the All Party Groups on Classical Music and on Statistics. An economist and past financial regulator, David is a former political editor of The Economist and deputy editor of two national newspapers. He was an adviser to James Callaghan as prime minister and to Anthony Crosland, the foreign secretary.
Gub Neal is an Emmy award-winning, BAFTA nominated TV drama producer who is currently Creative Director of Ringside Studios. He has been a Controller of Drama for Granada and Head of Drama for Channel 4, and his credits include the multi-award-winning dramas Cracker, Prime Suspect, The Fall, Queer as Folk, Sunday, Longitude and Shackleton.
Professor David Ferry RE is one of the UK’s leading printmakers with work in many national and international collections. In 2018 David curated an exhibition of unknown late Nolan spray paintings, titled the 'Celtic Image' for the Burren Annual exhibition in Ireland.
Alison Giles has worked in arts management, specialising in classical music, with organisations including The Sixteen, The Monteverdi Choir, The Tallis Scholars and Music at Oxford. Now resident in Wales, she produces Presteigne Festival and Brecon Baroque Festival and oversees their community projects. She also works as a consultant in arts and heritage fundraising.
Gria Shead is a contemporary Australian Artist. Her work is collected both in Australia and internationally. Gria’s work establishes Kate Kelly, sister of Ned Kelly, as a key element in the Australian visual narrative. In 2019 Gria was the international artist in residence at the Sidney Nolan Trust.
Thrasher, John Sidney (1817&ndash1879)
John Sidney Thrasher, newspaperman and filibuster, was born in Portland, Maine, in 1817. He was educated in the United States and in 1833 moved with his parents to Havana, Cuba, then under Spanish rule, where he became a clerk in a ship brokerage company. By 1850 he was publishing El Faro Industrial de la Habana, an anti-Spanish newspaper, and was traveling back and forth to the United States in support of Cuba's revolutionary faction. That year he was implicated in a failed insurrection led by Narciso López, was arrested in October 1851, and was tried for treason by the Spanish government. He was sent to prison in Africa but after American diplomatic intervention was released in 1852. He went to New Orleans, where he published another newspaper, the Beacon of Cuba, and agitated for Cuban annexation by the United States. From 1855 to 1859 Thrasher worked for the New York Herald, traveled to South America and Mexico, and continued to propagandize for the purchase of Cuba for the southern, proslavery cause. Sometime around 1859 Thrasher went to Galveston and was invited into social circles, where he met and courted Rebecca Mary Bass Menard, the fourth wife and widow of Michel B. Menard, the founder of Galveston. Though some friends and family members disapproved and believed Thrasher "an adventurer in politics and matrimony," the two were married in 1860. Thrasher began negotiations to put Menard property in his name, and by spring 1862 the couple had moved to their plantation in Brazoria County, Manor, which they renamed Valverde. The illness of Thrasher's stepson, Menard Doswell Menard, induced the family to move to Macon, Georgia, in search of a better climate in the fall of 1862. Until the end of the Civil War Thrasher was superintendent of the Confederate Press Association, which coordinated southern press reports during the war. In midsummer 1865 he returned with his family to Galveston, where he became involved in civic and business affairs. Beginning in 1869 he edited the Galveston Civilian, and as a city commissioner he helped entertain Horace Greeley in May 1871. Thrasher died in Galveston on November 10, 1879, and was buried in Magnolia Grove Cemetery.
- 1603 Sir Henry Boteler - Hatfield
- 1604 Sir George Peryent - Digswell
- 1605 Thomas Docwra - Putteridge Bury (son of Thomas, HS 1580)
- 1606 Sir Leonard Hide - Throcking
- 1607 Sir John Leventhorpe - Shingey Hall
- 1608 Nicholas Trott of Quickswood in Clothill
- 1609 Ralph Sadleir - Standon
- 1610 Sir Richard Anderson - Pendley
- 1611 Sir Robert Boteler - Watton
- 1612 John Wild -
- 1613 William Frankland of Rye House
- 1614 Sir Thomas Dacres, snr of Cheshunt (died 1615) then (Aug-Nov) Thomas Dacres jnr of Cheshunt
- 1615 Sir Goddard Pemberton of Hertingfordbury (died Aug 1616)
- 1616 Lewis Pemberton - St Albans
- 1616 Thomas Newce - Hadham
- 1617 Edward Briscoe - Aldenham
- 1618 Thomas Read - Hatfield
- 1619 Sir Nicholas Hyde, 1st Baronet - North Mimms
- 1620 Roger Pemberton - St Albans
- 1621 William Hale - King’s Walden
- 1622 Edward Newport - Pelham
- 1623 Sir Clement Scudamore - North Mimms
- 1624 Richard Sidley - Digswell
Socialism Theorists Throughout History
The following is a brief summary of various Socialist thinekrs throughout history. I hope it proves useful to anyone seeking to introduce themselves to new ideas and potential wider reading material!
CHARLES FOURIER AND ROBERT OWEN (PRE/ MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY)
Main Socialist Values: Radicalism, Communitarian and common ownership, Equality of outcome, “Cooperative” communities
Main Advances in Socialist Thought: Fourier and Owen were the first to apply the term “socialism” to a set of political ideas. They argued in favour of small-scale ‘cooperative’ communities that would distribute resources equally to all. Their works did not envisage socialism being applied at a mass level
KARL MARX AND FRIEDRICH ENGELS (NINETEENTH CENTURY)
Main Socialist Values: Revolutionary Socialism/ Marxism, Incompatibilism, Alienation, Historical Materialism
Main Advances in Socialist Thought: Marx/ Engels analysed Utopian Socialism at a mass-level. They adapted Hegel’s Dialectic to argue that the human history was a perpetual economic struggle between the bourgeoisie and proletariat. Marx/ Engels were revolutionaries so they believed that Capitalism should be violently overthrown to usher in a new socialist utopia
VLADIMIR ILYICH ULYANOV, AKA LENIN (PRE/EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY)
Main Socialist Values: Radicalism, Revolutionary Socialism, Revolutionary Vanguard(ism), Dictatorship of the Proletariat, Democratic Centralism
Main Advances in Socialist Thought: Outlining his ideas in the 1902 pamphlet entitled What is to Be Done?, Lenin argued that a revolutionary vanguard (an elite group of educated socialists) could deliver Communism themselves. Lenin’s Vanguardism skipped a stage in traditional Marxist thought because it avoided having to wait for Capitalism to fully develop for socialism to be established. Lenin justified a coup-like seizure of power on the basis that the incoming socialist government would be a “Dictatorship of the Proletariat” and this centralised democracy in Russia into the single Bolshevik Party. Marxism-Leninism thus laid the foundations for 20th Century Communist dictatorships
ROSA LUXEMBURG (PRE/ EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY)
Main Socialist Values: Revolutionary Socialism, Common Ownership, Proletariat class-consciousness
Main Advances in Socialist Thought: Luxemburg agreed that revolution was needed to bring about the socialist state but rejected the argument for a revolutionary vanguard. Luxemburg supported the idea that revolution should be spontaneous but only after class-consciousness had been gradually brought about through the education of the proletariat
SIDNEY/ BEATRICE WEBB (PRE-MID TWENTIETH CENTURY)
Main Socialist Values: Democratic Socialism, Parliamentary Reform, Gradualism, Nationalisation
Main Advances in Socialist Thought: The Webbs argued that the growing enfranchisement of working-class populations throughout Europe (specifically Britain) would lead to a more orderly transition to a socialist state and social system. The ideas of Beatrice and Sidney Webb were adopted by the post-WW2 Labour government which introduced things like the NHS and other welfare measures. Beatrice Webb emphasised on gradualism’s success upon the enshrining of socialism into the 1918 Labour constitution which she described as the “inevitability of gradualism”
Main Socialist Values: Democratic Socialism, Nationalisation/ Public Ownership, Euroscepticism
Main Advances in Socialist Thought: Benn disagreed with many of Attlee’s policies. He criticised Labour’s lack of investment into public services and argued for democratic accountability by leaving the EEC. Benn also supported abolishing the unelected House of Lords
ANTONIO GRAMSCI (1891-1937)
Main Socialist Values: Euro-Communism, Cultural Vanguard(ism), Anti-revolution, Anti-dictatorship
Main Advances in Socialist Thought: Gramsci emphasised on Capitalism’s Cultural Hegemony over society and the majority working-class. Gramsci supported the idea of a ‘Cultural Vanguard’- infiltrating Capitalist society through the promotion of socialist ideas. Euro-Communism supported using Parliamentary mechanisms of power and condemned the Russian/ Chinese Revolutions as disasters
HERBERT MARCUSE (1898-1979)
Main Socialist Values: Revolutionary Socialism, Frankfurt School, Cultural Hegemony
Main Advances in Socialist Thought: Marcuse supported the idea that Capitalism had a Cultural Hegemony but the Frankfurt School maintained that revolution was still necessary as a socialist vanguard would fail.
RALPH MILIBAND (1924-1994)
Main Socialist Values: Revolutionary Socialism, Trade Unionism
Main Advances in Socialist Thought: In The State and Capitalist Society , Miliband argued that socialism could not be achieved through Parliamentary/ democratic means. Spontaneous revolutionary trade unionism was the best way to achieve socialism
EDUARD BERNSTEIN (1850-1932)
Main Socialist Values: Compatibilism, Evolutionary Socialism, Gradualism
Main Advances in Socialist Thought: Bernstein argued that Capitalism and socialism could coexist which was a direct break from traditional Marxism. Accommodating Capitalism through gradual changes and interventionism would effectively move society towards socialism. Bernstein agreed with Fabian Society’s insistence on the use of Parliamentary democracy to achieve change
ANTHONY CROSLAND (1918-1977)
Main Socialist Values: Keynesianism, Evolutionary Socialism, Democracy
Main Advances in Socialist Thought: Crosland argued that Capitalism could be reformed through Keynesian economics. Keynesianism was incorporated into Crosland’s socialism because it could help address other areas of the economy (e.g. education and grammar schools etc)
ANTHONY GIDDENS (1938-)
Main Socialist Values:
Neoliberalism, Evolutionary Socialism, Social Justice
Main Advances in Socialist Thought: Giddens argued that economic growth went hand in hand with equality of outcome which was needed to ensure equality of opportunity. Giddens argued that socialist governments should accept economic growth to ensure equality of opportunity
Riyadh Ul-Hoque is a current Year 13 Sixth Form student reading History, Politics and English Literature at A-Level.
John Sidney Crosland - History
Abigail Asbell 8
Andrew W Asbell 12
Bryant Asbell 21
Henry Bunn 114
Nancy Burns 13
William Churchwell 2
Hardy Durham 108
George W Faulk 30
Nancy Faulk 24
Thomas Glover 46
Thomas G Glover 30
Morning Harte 2
Little Matthew 1
Hillard S Newby 2
Robert W Paul 7
Stephen L Richardson 44
Daniel W Shine 112
Henry S Wimberly 86
Nathan Berry 1
A G Bridge 1
Mary Bryan 65
William Bryant 47
Charity Burkett 11
Kruebril Burkett 2
Thomas W Burkett 9
Solomon Burkett 2
John Chapman 56
Margaret Chapman 29
Thomass Chivers 11
James E Crosland 2
Jos S Crosland 1
M A Crosland 1
Joel J Denson 5
Nancy Denson 9
Ira E Dupree 11
John Glover 37
William D Horne 32
Haywood Hughes 91
Elias Jones 51
John H Jones 1
Ellis Long 6
Solomon K Long 13
Archibald McAllum 87
Owen G McCoy 10
Garner Mercer 4
James I Methvin 2
Samuel B Methvin 24
William Methvin 53
William H Murphy 14
N D Ousley 3
James Radford 13
Mary Radford 26
Piety Steeley 2
B F Vinson 3
Maurice Ward 4
Caroline H Wimberly 23
Ezekiel A Wimberly 14
Polly Wimberly 32
Robt R Wimberly 84
J J Arnold 8
Wm W Bozeman 6
James C Burns 118
John A Clement 4
Zilpha Cook 1
Marth Hargraves 2
Elizabeth Herring 30
Bennet James 14
T M Janes 2
Sarah Johnson 8
Joseph King 25
John Sanders 7
Exum Simley 1
John W Wade 7
J A J Walters 7
Rebecca Walters 5
James M Ware 68
Morgan Whitchurch 19
John Wilkinson 2
Andrew W Ard 39
John W Asbell 9
Dolly A Booth 1
Sampson Bridger 7
James R Coombs 60
John Gallemore 53
Levy Gallemore 37
Wm J Gallemore 11
Daniel Holland 10
Elizabeth Hammock 1
Daniel G Hughs 41
Daniel H Johnson 8
Henry Lamb 17
Meedy Lamb 49
Thomas Sauls 3
Nancy A Johnson 1
John Tope 7
Wm T Vaughn 7
Celia Vinson 1
Britton W Ware 9
John A Barclay 27
Allen F Beckcom 21
William H Beckcom 35
Warren R Bond 2
Daniel Bullard 21
Parthena Bullard 22
Hugh L Bunn 26
Wm Davidson 3
Henry Durden 1
William Edmondson 8
John C Epps 58
Charles R Faulk 42
B W Ferney 14
S P Gragg 37
Eli S Griffin 19
Lucity Hearn 8
Thomas M Hughes 9
Thomas M Hughs 2
Charles G Johnson 28
Mary Jones 4
Mary S Jones 18
Nancy Jones 25
A L Joyner 12
Silman I Joyner 4
Avery Lanier 1
A H Moore 2
Archibald H Moore 3
Thomas Moore 25
Charles G Morton 6
S P Myrick 72
R A Nash 13
Thomas B Pace 35
James E Paul 7
John W Paul 6
Robert Paul 49
Alexander Pearce 9
Elizabeth Pearce 8
John M Pearce 10
S A Pearce 4
Wiley M Pearce 3
Henry H Perry 11
Henry S Ray 1
Charles P Reynolds 6
Lewis Solomon 4
L W Stewart 4
Larkin W Stewart 8
W H Stokes 2
Lemuel Taylor 5
R A Wash 5
Elizabeth Waters 14
William J Waters 2
Mary J Watters 1
Missouri A Whitehead 5
Romaldo R Whitehead 1
Jane Wimberly 1
Isaac Wood 11
Allen B Beckcom 103
John A Barclay 51
Joseph Atkins 1
Joseph Blackshear 12
Daniel O'Daniel 4
Peyton Reynolds 11
Harden S Smith 18
Joe ____ 9
James Bryan 26
Sidney Bryan 71
Henry Cates 20
Wm M Coley 1
D W Jarvis 3
Albert Marchman 5
Eunice Massey 12
Gustavus M McCrea 25
John B McCoy 5
Seana Rowell 2
Mary Saxon 1
M E Slappy 31
Robert R Slappy 79
Judy A __ 20
Ginney A Stave 10
H H Tarver 281
William M Tarver 11
Wm M Tarver 2
Wm M Varnun 13
J L W Ward 2
J W Ward 1
F D Wimberly 3
Fred D Wimberly 28
McCain married Carol Shepp, a model originally from Philadelphia, on July 3, 1965. He adopted her two young children from a previous marriage (Doug and Andy Shepp) and they had a daughter (Sydney, b. 1966). The couple divorced in April 1980.
McCain met Cindy Lou Hensley, a teacher from Phoenix and daughter of a prosperous Arizona beer distributor, while she was on vacation in 1979 with her parents in Hawaii. He was still married at the time, but separated from his first wife. John and Cindy McCain were married May 17, 1980 in Phoenix. They have four children: Meghan (b. 1984), John IV (known as Jack, b. 1986), James (known as Jimmy, b. 1988), and Bridget (b. 1991 in Bangladesh, adopted by the McCains in 1993).